NU606 2020 May Week 14 Quiz Latest (100% Graded)
Week 14 Quiz
Question 1A headache that results from pressure on the meninges surrounding the brain is referred to as a/an
Question 2All of the following apply to CVA except
a.the common cause is an atheroma with thrombus
b.maximum necrosis and infarction develop within several hours of onset
c.warning signs may appear with partial obstruction of the artery
d.increasing neurological deficits usually develop during the first few days
Question 3All of the following are typical signs of hydrocephalus in the neonate except
a.enlarged head with bulging fontanels
b.vomiting, headache, and paralysis
c.irritability and feeding difficulties
d.eyes turned downward with sclerae showing above the pupils
Question 4An epidural hematoma is located between the
a.dura mater and the arachnoid mater
b.dura mater and the skull
c.arachnoid mater and the pia mater
d.pia mater and the brain
Question 5Brain stem tumors do not manifest signs until they are quite large
a.Surrounding inflammation stimulates neurons to discharge spontaneously
b.Malignant tumors cause alkalosis, exciting the CNS
c.Systemic effects of the brain tumor may cause seizures
d.Metabolic effects of cancer change blood chemistry to trigger seizures
Question 6Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by
a.inheritance of an autosomal dominant trait
b.infection in the brain by HIV
c.an autoimmune reaction that damages nerve receptors
d.infection in the brain by a prion
Question 7Following an injury at L2 to L3, what would indicate recovery from spinal shock?
c.Labile body temperature
d.Increased sensation in the legs
Question 8How is the presence of spina bifida diagnosed?
a.Prenatally by ultrasound or detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in maternal blood or amniotic fluid
b.Only after birth by direct observation of the sac
c.After birth when the sac herniates as CSF builds up
d.Only with a spinal x-ray
Question 9In a case of bacterial meningitis, where does swelling and purulent exudate form?
a.In the pia mater, arachnoid, and surface of the entire brain
b.In the dura mater and epidural space
c.At the site of the injury or entry point of the microbes
d.Primarily around the spinal cord
Question 10In the weeks following CVA, why might some neurological function return?
1. Presence of collateral circulation
2. Immediate therapy to dissolve thrombi and maintain perfusion
3. Reduced inflammation in the area
4. Development of alternative neuronal pathways
d.2, 3, 4
e.1, 2, 3, 4
Question 11Pain resulting from a profound, sudden loss of blood flow to an organ or tissues in a specific area of the body is referred to as
Question 12The best description of a myelomeningocele is
a.asymptomatic failure of the posterior spinous processes of the vertebrae to fuse
b.herniation of the meninges through a vertebral defect
c.herniation of the meninges, CSF, and spinal cord or nerves through a vertebral defect
d.herniation of brain tissue through a defect in the cranium
Question 13The largest category of primary malignant brain tumors that arise from cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are called
Question 14Through what area does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate around the brain and spinal cord?
a.Between the double layers of the dura mater
b.In the subdural space
c.In the subarachnoid space
d.Through the arachnoid villi
Question 15What are the characteristic changes in the brain of a patient with Alzheimer disease?
a.Cortical atrophy with plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, impairing conduction
b.Increased acetylcholine (ACh) and decreased GABA and serotonin levels
c.Obstruction of many small arteries and arterioles throughout the cerebral cortex
d.Vacuoles forming in the neurons, rapidly destroying them
Question 16What characteristic is common to all individuals with cerebral palsy?
a.Some loss of cognitive function
b.One or more types of seizure
c.Serious multiple communication difficulties
d.Some degree of motor disability
The correct answer is: Some degree of motor disability
Question 17What is the pathophysiological change in Parkinson disease?
a.Degeneration of motor fibers in the pyramidal tracts
b.Excess secretion of stimulatory neurotransmitters in the CNS
c.Degeneration of the basal nuclei with a deficit of dopamine
d.Deficit of acetylcholine and degeneration of the motor cortex in the frontal lobe
Question 18What is the typical change in blood pressure in a patient who has increased intracranial pressure?
a.Erratic diastolic pressure
b.Decreasing systolic pressure
c.Systolic and diastolic pressures decreasing proportionately
d.Increasing pulse pressure
Question 19Which disease is associated with excessive dopamine secretion, decreased gray matter in the temporal lobes, and abnormal hippocampal cells in the brain?
Question 20Which of the following applies to Parkinson disease?
a.Usually develops in men and women over 60 years of age
b.There is no apparent genetic component
c.The majority of cases are predisposed by intake of antipsychotic medications
d.It rarely develops in women
Question 21Which of the following are common early signs of multiple sclerosis?
a.Paralysis of the lower body, impaired cognitive function
b.Areas of numbness, weakness in the legs, visual problems
c.Sensory deficit in the legs and trunk, memory loss, urinary incontinence
d.Tremors, speech impairment, hearing loss
Question 22Which of the following classes of drugs may provide temporary improvement in cases of myasthenia gravis?
a.Skeletal muscle relaxants
b.Dopamine replacement drugs
d.GABA replacement drugs
Question 23Which of the following does not apply to Reye syndrome?
a.There is no permanent damage in the body
b.It is precipitated by a combination of viral infection and administration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)
c.Cerebral edema develops
d.Liver damage is common
Question 24Which of the following is a true statement about transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)?
a.They usually cause necrosis and permanent brain damage
b.They may be caused by rupture of an aneurysm or a damaged artery
c.They usually indicate systemic hypertension
d.They can warn of potential cerebrovascular accidents
Question 25Which of the following is characteristic of multiple sclerosis?
a.Remissions and exacerbations
b.Predictable pattern of progression in all patients
c.Onset in men and women more than 60 years of age
d.Full recovery of function during remissions
Question 26Which of the following is the usual location of language centers?
Question 27Which of the following statements is true?
a.The brain is more aware of pain impulses when the reticular activating system is depressed
b.Acute pain does not cause a reflex response at the spinal cord synapses
c.Young infants typically respond to pain with tachycardia and increased blood pressure
d.Chronic pain is easier to tolerate without negative effects
Question 28Which statement best describes herniation resulting from increased intracranial pressure?
a.Movement of brain tissue into ventricles
b.Movement of brain stem upward
c.Pushing of excess CSF and blood down around the spinal cord
d.Displacement of brain tissue downward toward the spinal cord
Question 29Which statement does not apply to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis?
a.Demyelination of axons
b.It affects the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves
c.It affects motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers
d.Progressive random degeneration of peripheral nerves
With regard to meningitis, choose the correct combination of microbe and the age group commonly affected.
a.E. coli: elderly
b.H. influenzae: neonate
c.N. meningitides: children and youth
d.S. pneumoniae: young children