general business data bank
1. Most of us have committed and have not been caught. This statement reinforces the fact that:
2. Part II offenses of the UCR are counted when:
3. If a burglar breaks into a house, rapes one of the occupants, and flees in the owners’ car, which one of the crimes will be counted in congruence with the hierarchy rule?
4. Which instrument asks people whether or not they have been the victim of a crime?
5. The core sample of the Monitoring the Future is:
6. Which of the following is a weakness of the NCVS?
7. Which of the following are not accounted for by the NCVS?
8. The most widely known victim survey is the:
9. Surveys are especially useful for learning about which of the following?
10. The most effective method of accounting for certain crimes such as delinquency and victimless crimes is:
11. Monitoring the Future is a survey that targets a specific population, namely:
12. Which of the following is a characteristic of directed observations of crime?
13. A single incident cannot include multiple offenses, but may have one offense and multiple offenders.
14. NIBRS reports each crime incident rather than the total number of certain crimes.
15. Telescoping refers to:
16. One of the most interesting aspects of ADAM was that it combined urinalysis and:
17. Which of the following is used to gather data for the National Survey on Drug Use and Health?
18. DAWN is based on units of analysis that are:
19. According to your text, what do police cite as a main problem to the enforcement of drug laws?
20. When crimes happen at home and/or against persons, what is the best measure to use if the crimes are not reported to police?
21. Delinquency, victimless crimes and crimes rarely observed may be measured by self-report studies.
22. Which of the following are considered to be crime measurement “units of analysis”?
23. With regard to limitations of a crime measure, self report studies can tell us something about shoplifters, but it would be difficult to use this method to measure:
24. The NIBRS has a relatively low level of sophistication and cost.
25. Which of the following is not a general purpose of measuring crime?
26. A victim’s insistence that the police not arrest a suspect results in no documentation of the incident (i.e. the police officer does not file a report on the incident). This circumstance supports the idea:
27. With regard to measures of crime, the specific entities that researchers collect information about are known as:
28. In an incident containing multiple crimes, the most serious one is counted in the UCR. This practice is known as the:
29. Which of the following are referred to as a summary based measure of crime?
30. Researchers must decide on offenses, units and purposes before specifying measures of crime.
31. Which technique is best for measuring crimes that do not have easily identifiable victims?
32. Methods of reporting crime are never updated and have been continually used since their inception.
33. Which term best describes “one or more offenses committed by the same offender, or group of offenders acting in concert, at the same time and place”?
34. Drug episodes are defined as:
35. UCR data suffers from:
36. Crimes must at a minimum have an offender, because without an offender there is no crime.
37. The main purpose of ADAM was to provide an ongoing assessment of the prevalence of drug use among:
38. The most widely used measures of crime are based on police records and are commonly referred to as:
39. Every local and state enforcement agency:
40. UCR crime data is reported broken down into how many parts?
41. The main difference between the UCR and NIBRS is:
42. Data that is based upon households has which of the following as potential problems?
43. One important step in selecting a measure of crime is deciding what crimes will be included.
44. One of the primary reasons for conducting crime surveys was to illuminate unreported crimes; this concept is called:
45. Which of the following crimes are detected almost exclusively by police observation?
46. The NVCS is based on a nationally representative sample of:
47. According to the textbook, which two series of crime measures seek to assess the magnitude, nature, and impact of crime in the Nation?
48. In the field of public health, “monitoring” (in order to measure crime) is referred to as a(n):
49. The UCR accounts for all types of crime, even those crimes that are not observed.
50. Police measurement of crime is imperfect because:
1. If randomization is not possible, what should the researcher do?
2. What process is accomplished by assigning the odd numbered subjects to the experimental group and the even-numbered subjects to the control group?
3. Which of the following is accurate?
4. With regard to experimentation and subject selection, what does random assignment serve to eliminate?
5. To guard against most threats to internal validity in the classical experiment the researcher should:
6. Experimentation is best suited for hypothesis testing in:
7. Experimentation is an approach to research best suited for exploration.
8. Which of the following is not illustrative of the case study method?
9. Social science researchers use a control group that hasn’t received the experimental stimulus in order to do what?
10. In general, testing refers to changes in how subjects respond to measurement, whereas instrumentation is concerned with:
11. In the classical experiment subjects are measured on the independent variable before the experiment begins and again after the dependent variable has been manipulated by the researcher.
12. In criminal justice experiments, what serves as a guard against the effects of the experiments themselves as well as events that may occur outside the laboratory during the course of experiments?
13. To assess the impact of child abuse upon later criminality, Dr. Rose chose to select some adults whose names appeared as child abuse victims in local police records and another group of adults who were not victims of abuse. What technique is being employed?
14. You have just completed the LSAT and scored 112. Your roommate who is no smarter than you took the LSAT with you and scored 165. You were so upset with your score that you decided to take the test again and you convinced your roommate to take it with you for moral support. You both received scores on the second exam of 150. What accounted for the differences in scores?
15. Essentially, an experiment examines the effect of:
16. Which of the following would not be likely to impact a study’s external validity?
17. The independent variable in a classical experiment must be a ratio level variable
18. In case-oriented research a large number of cases are examined in order to understand a small number of variables.
19. Maturation as a threat to internal validity in experiments refers to:
20. The first decision for selecting subjects for an experiment is:
21. When using a nonequivalent-groups design the researcher will handle subject assignment to groups by:
22. The goal of the classical experiment is for the researcher to:
23. The defining feature of an experiment lies in the control of the independent variable by the experimenter.
24. How does a cohort design differ from other quasi-experimental designs?
25. The threat to the internal validity of an experiment that is called compensatory treatment refers to which of the following situations?
26. Graduates majoring in criminal justice and graduates majoring in psychology from the State University were part of a study to assess employment success of those receiving their degrees in May 2002. Six months after graduation a questionnaire was sent out asking about their job seeking success. What type of design is this?
27. How can a researcher be sure that threats to internal validity are being ruled out in the design?
28. An interrupted time-series design can be very useful in what type of research?
29. How many attributes does a dichotomous variable have?
30. The threat of history refers to:
31. Which of the following statements is accurate?
32. While the interrupted time series can be used in cause-and-effect studies, it is really useless in applied studies
33. External validity in an experimental design refers to:
34. Which example below is not a random assignment to experimental groups?
35. Shortening the time between pretest and posttest or perhaps even offering cash payments to participants in an experiment are techniques that may be used to
36. Construct validity is concerned with the ability to generalize from the results of the experimental group to the control group.
37. Which of the following is not considered a threat to internal validity in an experimental design?
38. What technique can be used to help reduce the threat to experimental mortality?
39. A group of students who completed a research methods class at the local college were given a questionnaire to assess their feelings about the homeless and after were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group was required to volunteer at the local homeless shelter while the control group was not. After one month of volunteering, members of both groups were asked to complete the questionnaire on feelings concerning the homeless again. What type of research design is this?
40. What can help rule out the threats to internal validity in an experimental design?
41. When neither the subjects nor the researcher can identify which group is the control group and which is the experimental group the design is said to be:
42. There may be legal reasons why randomization cannot be used in criminal justice research to assign subjects to either a control group or an experimental group
43. Sometimes it is not possible to separate subjects from experimental and control groups and the result is that they may discuss the research. What is the threat that this situation poses?
44. Which of the following phrases is most true concerning random assignment to groups?
45. Two dimensions to generalizability are:
46. In Widom’s study of the effects of child abuse and its impact upon later criminal offenses, she selected a sample of children with court records of being abuse victims and gathered a comparison group that was matched on gender, race, age and socioeconomic status. The technique used in this case was:
47. Dr. Smith was interested in whether there would be a reduction in the number of crimes in the central city once closed-circuit cameras went up and were monitored by police. To accomplish this study Dr. Smith looked at the police records for the four square block area where the cameras were installed each week for six months. Dr. Smith was using what method?
48. A questionnaire is sent to 1,000 police departments in Florida and gathers information on the number of sick days officers use after being involved in a shooting incident. This is an example of what type of research?