general business data bank
1. Which of the following is an example of organizations as units of analysis?
2. Construct validity refers to generalizing from what we observe and measure to the real-world things in which we are interested.
3. Joseph Maxwell identified “how credible and believable it is” as one criterion for assessing an idiographic explanation.
4. Which of the following is accurate with respect to time dimensions?
5. According to the text book, because time order is a requirement for causal inferences, the time dimension of research requires
6. Regarding nomothetic explanation, which of the following specific criteria for causality do researchers consider?
7. After careful study of the relationship between the economy and arson, the conclusion was drawn that when the economy is poor and unemployment is high the arson rates go up. The researcher concluded that unemployed people are more likely to commit arson than are those that are employed. What error was just committed?
8. In a general sense, external validity is concerned with whether research findings from one study can be
9. A survey distributed on a college campus discovered that males support the death penalty in greater numbers than do females. The units of analysis in this case would be
10. Observations of shoplifters in Pueblo, Colorado characterized as “72 percent men and 28 percent women, with an average age of 15.4 years” constitutes which type of analysis?
11. A study of the commentary made about the Patriot Act in 50 major newspapers’ editorials found that newspapers in the northeast gave more attention to the subject than did papers in any other part of the country. What is the unit of analysis being used?
12. The well-known Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment, discussed in Chapter 1, provides another example of
13. Which of the following is not a type of longitudinal study?
14. Which of the following would allow a researcher to measure change in a general population over time?
15. Manipulation of the collected data in order to draw conclusions refers to
16. Which of the following is correct?
17. All but which of the following would be a unit of analysis?
18. Which of the following —refers to the danger of making assertions about individuals as the unit of analysis based on the examination of groups or other aggregations?
19. Marvin Wolfgang’s study of males born in Philadelphia in 1945 was an attempt to measure delinquency by following those males from their 10th birthday until they were 18. This is an example of what type of study?
20. Causally related can also be expressed as
21. Professor Hardy has spent the last decade conducting a study of the effects of early childhood “Wellness” programs on subsequent delinquency. Every year, researchers visit participating families and collect a variety of data. Over the course of 10 years, many families have moved away and the research staff has been unable to locate them. What problem has Professor Hardy encountered?
22. The idea that two variables must vary together (i.e. must be empirically correlated)—is a nomothetic criterion of causality.
23. Which of the following is not true concerning a cohort study?
zcohort members are studied as individuals as well as their group affiliation
24. Nonsystematic bias would be found in what type of validity problem?
25. Which of the following are social artifacts?
26. Despite a record number of cars being stolen in Newark, NJ in 2000, Newark’s auto theft rate was really lower than that of Miami, Denver and Chicago. The unit of analysis used in this example is?
27. In the following research conclusion, what units of analysis are being used? “An enormous variation of deviant activities was represented in a sample of 1,485 news items. We categorized these deviant activities into five general types of analysis: violence, economic, political, ideological/cultural and diversionary.”
28. Retrospective studies have the danger of faulty memories or even subjects lying.
29. Rather than try to exclude or otherwise control possible outside influences, scientific realism studies how such influences are involved in
30. If X comes before Y in time,
31. Which of the following is an example of a panel study?
32. One cannot be convicted of a crime unless one is charged with the crime. Being charged with a crime is representative of:
33. A researcher compared the recidivism rates of drug abusers that were given probation with those that were sentenced to prison and discovered that the recidivism rates were highest for those given prison. What potential error is reflected by this conclusion?
34. Households used by the National Crime Victimization Survey are an example of which unit of analysis?
35. What is the order of steps the typical researcher will take in the research process?
36. When we are concerned with whether we are correct in inferring that a cause produced an effect, we are concerned with the:
37. Our ability to determine whether a change in the cause is statistically associated with a change in the effect is referring to what type of validity?
38. Identifying the population and sample precede which of the following tasks in a research project?
39. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a cross-sectional study?
40. Prospective studies are completed quickly since you only have to ask people to project what they would do or how they will act in the future.
41. Which of the following would serve as a “snap shot” of a phenomenon at one point in time?
42. After a one-year study of the recidivism rates of boot camps in the state of Georgia, the lowest rates were found in the boot camps located in Macon. What units of analysis were used in this study?
43. Dr. Stone is interested in comparing the attitudes about teenage pregnancy between the United States and the Netherlands. He selects samples in both countries of 10 year old males and females and plans to survey a portion of them every other year for the next ten years. Stone is using what technique?
44. Which term best describes—an overly strict limitation on the kinds of concepts and variables to be considered as causes in explaining the broad range of human behavior represented by crime and criminal justice policy?
45. Which type of research study project is designed to permit observations over an extended period of time?
46. Which of the following would be an example of a retrospective approach to longitudinal studies?
47. A major mid-western university does annual surveys of its alumni. These surveys are designed to gauge the attitudes that alumni hold about the university, its academic programs, and the major team sports. These surveys have been an annual event for the last two decades and represent which type of study?
48. In examining the relationship between drug use and crime discussed in your text, which of the following represents an internal validity threat?
49. When we specify what we mean by a concept we are using what?
50. In an examination of violent crime among the most populous nations in the world, the United States ranks very high along with England, France and Australia. The chance of being raped is higher in France than in the United States. What units of analysis are being used?
51. Decisions concerning who or what to study relate to
52. Social artifacts refer only to paper documents, such as newspapers, court opinions and police crime reports.
53. Causation in social science is the foundation for exploratory research.
54. Conceptualization refers toThe effects of violence in children’s programming is a major research endeavor that requires counting the number of violent acts in Saturday morning cartoons for an entire year. The units of analysis being used for this project are