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Uses Case Autonomous Vehicles
This use case is concentrated on 5G network slicing for vehicle-to-everything services, licenced and unlicensed spectrum sharing, LTE sidelink, cell free, carrier aggregation, with the infrastructure and any communicating entity for better transport fluidity, safety, and relaxation on the road. Explanation of slicing include the partition(s) of the core network, RAN resources and vehicular end-device functionality configuration. Furthermore, it is extended to Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication (URLLC), involving ultra-reliable low-latency and/or strong communication links and mMTC.
Motivation for the need of 5G networks
In recent years the idea of “connected car” has arisen, that has the capability to offer a new dimension of services for drivers through wireless communications, which is well-thought-out as one of the furthermost distinct designs of next generation vehicles.
Figure 1. Types of V2X services.
These wirelessly connected vehicles with pedestrians and each other’s within contiguity can recognise the possibility of collision by sharing the information for example, speed and direction at their location. Similarly, the vehicle which connected to network infrastructure can communicate with thing in charge of traffic control which they will informed of anonymous deterministic hazards on the road or route for traffic flow optimization and guidance on the speed. Because of LTE air interface of high spectral efficiency, it is able to support numerous vehicle-to-everything (V2X) services, also it is able to upkeep diverse categories of communications from one-to-one to one to-many transmissions, and from usual downlink and uplink cellular communications to device-to-device (D2D) direct over-the-air communications.
On the procedure of LTE-based V2X, two air interfaces will be cooperatively operated one D2D interface using sidelink and the other one cellular interface based on uplink/ downlink and will select rendering to the necessity of each V2X service. The D2D and cellular communication is the segment of LTE-based V2X, which will present substantial operational advantage efficient utilization of the spectrum. Generally, the intelligent transportation system, has four type of entity; central servers intelligent transportation system, roadside unit, vehicles ready with an onboard unit, ordinary road users for example bicycle riders and pedestrians. These defined entities can communicate with each other using D2D or cellular based communication. V2X which is based on D2D support low latency and provide short range communication even for out-of-network coverage, while communication which is based on cellular communication is for wide-area communication with high capacity. The transportation infrastructure entity roadside unit that can be perform in eNodeB or a standing user terminal, it offers many services based on the information of local topology acquired from nearby vulnerable users, central intelligent transportation system server and sensors for example induction loops and cameras. With onboard units when a limited count of vehicles is equipped, at the preliminary stage of V2X service launch, the roadside unit delivers local topology knowledge gotten by roadside sensors instead of V2V communication. If a prevailing eNodeB can work as a roadside unit, swift growth of the V2X market might be estimated. Even in the
Figure 2. Spectrum options for V2X operation in a given area
mature stage, a roadside unit can require wider topology knowledge with high reliability. For the road, service information and all other entities as well as traffic the central intelligent transportation system provide the centralized control for them. Central intelligent transportation system can be deployed outside the network of LTE by transportation industry for example department of transportation. As in Fig. 2 shown distinctive scenarios of spectrum utilization for LTE-based V2X. The spectrum is either allocated to D2D or cellular. To offer the sufficient capacity for the cellular based V2X the LTE spectrum and infrastructure can be reused, which is operating by different operatives with several LTE carriers in a certain region, which is belong to the Fig. 2 scenario A. when the user equipment using the spectrum of its own operator for mutually types of links, the uniform spectrum be able to be cast-off for both links. In this circumstance, it is essential to think in what way to deliver the essential quality of service (QoS) for the V2X communications through user equipment’s going to distinctive operators where tight coordination and fast data transfer could not constantly be presumed. Based on the frequency allocation rule, it is feasible that a new dedicated spectrum is allocated to D2D-based V2X. An LTE carrier for D2D operation is not essentially licensed to an operator. In such kind cases, there for wholly the D2D action for V2X proceeds abode in the dedicated D2D spectrum as shown in scenario B, and the matter of inter-operator operation is restricted to the cellular link. The operator might be using in such case cellular link for V2X services standing comparatively low latency in command to interpret for the latency caused by the inter-operator operation, whereas for the D2D linking usage, its services required short latency and limited short coverage. For radio parameter optimization, congestion control, radio resource allocation, security and authentication the network control will be developed. In case no LTE coverage is offered for certain specific areas, then for the V2X the D2D link will be used without taking such network control as in scenario D. All that parameters that are controlled by network will be set to predefined ones, which might be lead to fairly non-optimized operation. If mission-critical services are sustained by cellular-based V2X, committed spectrum for the entire V2X can have benefits in relations of capacity and QoS control. In term of this circumstance a particular operator per particular area and RAN sharing operation amongst operators are measured as operational choices with little deployment charge. As a result, the operation scenario will be in the practise of scenario C in Fig. 2.
· Safety and traffic efficiency.
The event-driven and periodic messages of Vehicle to vehicle/ vehicle to pedestrian (V2V/V2P) taking the position and its kinematics parameters of vehicle which is using as transmitter to permit further vehicles and exposed road users to feel the nearby situation and upkeep applications such as: a warning of forward collision which notifies a driver of an impending rear-end collision through a vehicle upfront, for sharing the same path a cooperative adaptive cruise control is exercising which is permitting the cluster of vehicle in proximity, VRU protection to aware a vehicle of the occurrence of a VRU.
· Autonomous driving. Autonomous driving condition are additional narrower than those in V2V safety applications; because it might be at higher speed relatively 200km/h and will very close to each other. Furthermore, it requires complete road network coverage to be driverless in all geographies, with that network condition which can support communications with high vehicle density. In certain situations, video/data interchange throughout V2N links may supplementary improve the autonomous driving efficiency and safety.
· Vehicular Internet and infotainment. For the Web browsing, social media approach content, applications download, and HD video streaming for travellers are measured a “must-have” for latest cars and would become even extra related with enlarged penetration of self-driving vehicles, in which also the driver might be involved in media utilisation.
· Remote diagnostics and management. A V2X application server maintained through a car producer or a vehicle diagnostic center can save communication occasionally directed by vehicles in V2N mode to track their position for remote problem-solving reasons. Likewise, fleet management applications might track the vehicle status and position for forensic diagnostic interest and to evade insurance scam.
Use case two
This uses case focused on 5G and beyond, concentrated on small cell heterogenous network, energy efficiency and high data rate.
In our daily life, popular hot spot areas, such as shopping malls, popular scenic spots and music concerts, crowded stadium, attract dense crowd and introduce high traffic demands. It is difficult to have a phone call or delivery messages because of burst connection requests and huge traffic volumes. When small cells are deployed in these areas, frequency reuse can provide extra bandwidth to serve burst traffic demands. In this way, the high traffic load of base station can be offloaded by small cells . Besides, advantages of low cost, low power, small size, and flexible deployment further emphasize the importance of small cell technology. For provision of better service, operator can not only deploy more base station to increase system capacity, but also can deploy more small cells to increase service coverage, to increase system capacity, and to integrate multiple radio access technologies, such as 3G, long term evolution , and Wi-Fi, to provide content rich diverse services. Hybrid deployment of macro cells and small cells can not only increase service coverage and system capacity, but also can mitigate the problem of traffic congestion and improve the signal quality in indoor and outdoor environment. In comparison with macro cell deployment which requires large physical space and adopts high transmission power to serve large area, small cell deployment requires only small physical space and adopts small transmission power to serve small area. The coverage area of small cell is typical 200 to 300 meters and the operation expenditure of small cell is low because of small size, low cost, easy deployment and Internet-based backhaul. Although deployment of more base stations can also improve system capacity, the expensive costs, large physical size, and high transmission power prohibit the feasibility of dense macro cell deployment. So, deployment of small cell within macro cell becomes a cost effective and feasible solution to improve entire system performance.
The fourth generation (4G) mobile networks which are commercially deployed worldwide cannot satisfy large amounts of wireless traffic generated by smartphones, tablets and machine-type communication devices in the next decade. The 5G mobile networks are expected to greatly increase the high peak data rate (not less than 10 Gb/s) , area spectral efficiency, and energy efficiency, and provide a uniform service experience regardless of where or which device is being used. On the other hand, it is very difficult for operators to further increase the density of macrocell sites and significantly increase network capacity. Therefore, hyper-dense deployment of small cells is expected to provide several orders of magnitude area spectral and energy efficiency compared to 4G networks. The concept of small cells, including femtocells, picocells, microcells, and metro-cells ( Metro cells are an emerging solution to improving hotspots throughput in cellular networks) [cite the paper of this definition], has been attracting more and more attention from mobile operators to improve indoor or local area system capacity and service coverage. The BS of a small cell uses a low transmit power to cover a distance of tens of meters. It is usually deployed by the end user at home or in small commercial entities and is connected to cellular core networks over a digital subscriber line. In this way, small cells can effectively reduce both network deployment and operational expenses. Some large-scale outdoor events that are held temporarily in a certain area can be visited by a significant amount of people in a limited time period. Such events include, for example, sports, exhibitions, concerts, festivals, fireworks and so on. Visitors typically want to take high-resolution photos and videos and share them with their family and friends in real time. Since so many people are concentrated in a specific area of the event, the aggregated traffic volume can be enormously large. The network is highly under-dimensioned since the density of users in such an area is usually much lower unless there is such an event , . Thus, the critical requirements for crowded outdoor events are to provide average experienced user throughput that is sufficient for video data and to accommodate the large traffic volume density for the high connection density is possible by small cell deployment.
According to the requirements of 5G, it has been proposed that wireless networks should support higher data rate volume (probably 1000 times higher mobile data rate volume per area), higher typical user data rate (10–100 times higher than 4G), and lower energy consumption. As a result, the concept of heterogeneous networks should be enhanced through introducing hyper-dense small cell deployments. Currently, the deployment of macro-cells mainly provides wide coverage, and the transmit power is mainly utilized to mitigate path loss. Through deploying hyper-dense small cells, the high data rate demand of indoor and hotspot users could be met. At the same time, the load of macro-cells could be eased by offloading mobile device traffic to small cells, and the energy consumption of both mobile devices and BSs will be reduced. Furthermore, the cost of deploying small cells is lower than macrocells. The deployment of small cells depends on the users’ behaviour and traffic distribution in the local area. It is flexible and unplanned, compared to other kinds of cells, which are deployed and fully controlled by operators.
Step by step scenario
From the perspective of different demands, there are three typical deployment scenarios of dense small cells: residential, enterprise, and hotspot deployments.
a) Residential deployment
Residential users want to enjoy better data rate services through deploying a small cell inside the house. Thus, the private benefits of the exclusive network are essential and should be guaranteed. In this type, the small cell may be deployed with a closed subscriber group (CSG) mode, which means that only member subscribers on the small cell’s access control list can get service. Considering that the number of family users is limited, each small cell (i.e. Femtocell) may support four to eight users in a residential deployment.
b) Enterprise deployment
For this type, small cells are deployed to provide high data rate access to employees. Therefore, the number of users is higher than in the residential deployment. Typically, a small cell of enterprise deployment supports 8–32 active mobile devices. The privacy of enterprise small cells should also be ensured. Sometimes, guests might come to visit the enterprise, and the deployed small cell should also provide service to them under the premise that employee users have higher priority. As a result, the enterprise small cell may be deployed in the CSG or hybrid mode. In the hybrid access mode, all subscribers can make a connection with the small cell, but member subscribers have priority over non-member subscribers for getting service from the small cell. From the perspective of energy savings, most of the enterprise deployed small cells (i.e. Femtocells) could be turned off or set in the dormant mode after work.
c) Hotspot Deployment
In many public areas (shopping malls, coffee shops, airports, railway stations, stadiums, public parks, etc.), operators need to deploy large numbers of small cells in these areas to enhance hotspot coverage and provide convenient access. The small cell may be deployed in the hybrid or open access mode based on the deployment strategy. For example, tourists in a public park should be treated fairly. In this case, an open access mode is more suitable. All members have equal priority when they are served by a small cell working in the open access mode. For outdoor cases, a picocell or microcell could be deployed to offload some traffic load from macro-cells. It should be mentioned that the number of users varies greatly at different times, and dynamic energy efficiency management policies are needed.
The small cells are mainly deployed for providing hotspot coverage at locations where the user density is typically higher. Only the macro layer is assumed to offer wide area coverage. Legacy UEs without CA support are served by a single cell only i.e. either by a macro or small cell. For such legacy UEs, it is therefore important that the handover from macro to small cell (and vice versa) is made at the right time to ensure that the end-user data rate is maximized, or kept above the minimum promised QoS target. UEs with CA can be configured to receive data from carriers at the macro and small cell layer simultaneously. For the sake of simplicity, we assume that the primary cell (PCell) is always at the macro, while the secondary cell (SCell) is on the small cell . By using this approach, the UE has always a stable anchor PCell, while the SCell is configured / released depending on whether a small cell is in its vicinity. The advantage of configuring the UE to be in inter-site CA between the macro and small cell layer is the access to higher bandwidth (i.e. two carriers), which can result in higher end-user data rates. Combining this with coordinated packet scheduling on the PCell and SCell, the network is able to efficiently balance the resource use for different UEs at the two frequency layers, offering fast and efficient load balancing . In this study, the focus is on the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Connected mode downlink performance, since CA is first expected to be supported for this link direction.