Question_Doc8_15Dec
9-1. Assume Evco, Inc., has a current price of $50 and will pay a $2 dividend in one year, and its
equity cost of capital is 15%. What price must you expect it to sell for right after paying the
dividend in one year in order to justify its current price?
.
9-2. Anle Corporation has a current price of $20, is expected to pay a dividend of $1 in one year, and
its expected price right after paying that dividend is $22.
a. What is Anle’s expected dividend yield?
b. What is Anle’s expected capital gain rate?
c. What is Anle’s equity cost of capital?
9-3. Suppose Acap Corporation will pay a dividend of $2.80 per share at the end of this year and $3
per share next year. You expect Acap’s stock price to be $52 in two years. If Acap’s equity cost
of capital is 10%:
a. What price would you be willing to pay for a share of Acap stock today, if you planned to
hold the stock for two years?
b. Suppose instead you plan to hold the stock for one year. What price would you expect to be
able to sell a share of Acap stock for in one year?
c. Given your answer in part (b), what price would you be willing to pay for a share of Acap
stock today, if you planned to hold the stock for one year? How does this compare to you
answer in part (a)?
9-4. Krell Industries has a share price of $22 today. If Krell is expected to pay a dividend of $0.88 this
year, and its stock price is expected to grow to $23.54 at the end of the year, what is Krell’s
dividend yield and equity cost of capital?
9-5. NoGrowth Corporation currently pays a dividend of $2 per year, and it will continue to pay this
dividend forever. What is the price per share if its equity cost of capital is 15% per year?
9-6. Summit Systems will pay a dividend of $1.50 this year. If you expect Summit’s dividend to grow
by 6% per year, what is its price per share if its equity cost of capital is 11%?
9-7. Dorpac Corporation has a dividend yield of 1.5%. Dorpac’s equity cost of capital is 8%, and its
dividends are expected to grow at a constant rate.
a. What is the expected growth rate of Dorpac’s dividends?
b. What is the expected growth rate of Dorpac’s share price?
9-8. Kenneth Cole Productions (KCP), suspended its dividend at the start of 2009. Suppose you do
not expect KCP to resume paying dividends until 2011.You expect KCP’s dividend in 2011 to be
$0.40 per year (paid at the end of the year), and you expect it to grow by 5% per year thereafter.
If KCP’s equity cost of capital is 11%, what is the value of a share of KCP at the start of 2009?
9-9. DFB, Inc., expects earnings this year of $5 per share, and it plans to pay a $3 dividend to
shareholders. DFB will retain $2 per share of its earnings to reinvest in new projects with an
expected return of 15% per year. Suppose DFB will maintain the same dividend payout rate,
retention rate, and return on new investments in the future and will not change its number of
outstanding shares.
a. What growth rate of earnings would you forecast for DFB?
b. If DFB’s equity cost of capital is 12%, what price would you estimate for DFB stock?
c. Suppose DFB instead paid a dividend of $4 per share this year and retained only $1 per
share in earnings. If DFB maintains this higher payout rate in the future, what stock price
would you estimate now? Should DFB raise its dividend?
.
9-10. Cooperton Mining just announced it will cut its dividend from $4 to $2.50 per share and use the
extra funds to expand. Prior to the announcement, Cooperton’s dividends were expected to grow
at a 3% rate, and its share price was $50. With the new expansion, Cooperton’s dividends are
expected to grow at a 5% rate. What share price would you expect after the announcement?
(Assume Cooperton’s risk is unchanged by the new expansion.) Is the expansion a positive NPV
investment?
9-11. Gillette Corporation will pay an annual dividend of $0.65 one year from now. Analysts expect
this dividend to grow at 12% per year thereafter until the fifth year. After then, growth will level
off at 2% per year. According to the dividend-discount model, what is the value of a share of
Gillette stock if the firm’s equity cost of capital is 8%?
9-12. Colgate-Palmolive Company has just paid an annual dividend of $0.96. Analysts are predicting
an 11% per year growth rate in earnings over the next five years. After then, Colgate’s earnings
are expected to grow at the current industry average of 5.2% per year. If Colgate’s equity cost of
capital is 8.5% per year and its dividend payout ratio remains constant, what price does the
dividend-discount model predict Colgate stock should sell for?
9-13. What is the value of a firm with initial dividendDiv, growing fornyears (i.e., until yearn+ 1) at
rateg1and after that at rateg2forever, when the equity cost of capital isr?
9-14. Halliford Corporation expects to have earnings this coming year of $3 per share. Halliford plans
to retain all of its earnings for the next two years. For the subsequent two years, the firm will
retain 50% of its earnings. It will then retain 20% of its earnings from that point onward. Each
year, retained earnings will be invested in new projects with an expected return of 25% per year.
Any earnings that are not retained will be paid out as dividends. Assume Halliford’s share count
remains constant and all earnings growth comes from the investment of retained earnings. If
Halliford’s equity cost of capital is 10%, what price would you estimate for Halliford stock?
.
9-15. Suppose Cisco Systems pays no dividends but spent $5 billion on share repurchases last year. If
Cisco’s equity cost of capital is 12%, and if the amount spent on repurchases is expected to grow
by 8% per year, estimate Cisco’s market capitalization. If Cisco has 6 billion shares outstanding,
what stock price does this correspond to?
9-16. Maynard Steel plans to pay a dividend of $3 this year. The company has an expected earnings
growth rate of 4% per year and an equity cost of capital of 10%.
a. Assuming Maynard’s dividend payout rate and expected growth rate remains constant, and
Maynard does not issue or repurchase shares, estimate Maynard’s share price.
b. Suppose Maynard decides to pay a dividend of $1 this year and use the remaining $2 per
share to repurchase shares. If Maynard’s total payout rate remains constant, estimate
Maynard’s share price.
c. If Maynard maintains the dividend and total payout rate given in part (b), at what rate are
Maynard’s dividends and earnings per share expected to grow?
9-17. Benchmark Metrics, Inc. (BMI), an all-equity financed firm, just reported EPS of $5.00 per
share for 2008. Despite the economic downturn, BMI is confident regarding its current
investment opportunities. But due to the financial crisis, BMI does not wish to fund these
investments externally. The Board has therefore decided to suspend its stock repurchase plan
and cut its dividend to $1 per share (vs. almost $2 per share in 2007), and retain these funds
instead. The firm has just paid the 2008 dividend, and BMI plans to keep its dividend at $1 per
share in 2009 as well. In subsequent years, it expects its growth opportunities to slow, and it will
still be able to fund its growth internally with a target 40% dividend payout ratio, and
reinitiating its stock repurchase plan for a total payout rate of 60%. (All dividends and
repurchases occur at the end of each year.)
Suppose BMI’s existing operations will continue to generate the current level of earnings per
share in the future. Assume further that the return on new investment is 15%, and that
reinvestments will account for all future earnings growth (if any). Finally, assume BMI’s equity
cost of capital is 10%.
a. Estimate BMI’s EPS in 2009 and 2010 (before any share repurchases).
b. What is the value of a share of BMI at the start of 2009?
9-18. Heavy Metal Corporation is expected to generate the following free cash flows over the next five
years:
After then, the free cash flows are expected to grow at the industry average of 4% per year.
Using the discounted free cash flow model and a weighted average cost of capital of 14%:
a. Estimate the enterprise value of Heavy Metal.
b. If Heavy Metal has no excess cash, debt of $300 million, and 40 million shares outstanding,
estimate its share price.
9-19. IDX Technologies is a privately held developer of advanced security systems based in Chicago.
As part of your business development strategy, in late 2008 you initiate discussions with IDX’s
founder about the possibility of acquiring the business at the end of 2008. Estimate the value of
IDX per share using a discounted FCF approach and the following data:
? Debt: $30 million
? Excess cash: $110 million
? Shares outstanding: 50 million
? Expected FCF in 2009: $45 million
? Expected FCF in 2010: $50 million
? Future FCF growth rate beyond 2010: 5%
? Weighted-average cost of capital: 9.4%
9-20. Sora Industries has 60 million outstanding shares, $120 million in debt, $40 million in cash, and
the following projected free cash flow for the next four years:
a. Suppose Sora’s revenue and free cash flow are expected to grow at a 5% rate beyond year 4.
If Sora’s weighted average cost of capital is 10%, what is the value of Sora’s stock based on
this information?
b. Sora’s cost of goods sold was assumed to be 67% of sales. If its cost of goods sold is actually
70% of sales, how would the estimate of the stock’s value change?
c. Let’s return to the assumptions of part (a) and suppose Sora can maintain its cost of goods
sold at 67% of sales. However, now suppose Sora reduces its selling, general, and
administrative expenses from 20% of sales to 16% of sales. What stock price would you
estimate now? (Assume no other expenses, except taxes, are affected.)
*d. Sora’s net working capital needs were estimated to be 18% of sales (which is their current
level in year 0). If Sora can reduce this requirement to 12% of sales starting in year 1, but all
other assumptions remain as in part (a), what stock price do you estimate for Sora? (Hint:
This change will have the largest impact on Sora’s free cash flow in year 1.)
9-21. Consider the valuation of Kenneth Cole Productions in Example 9.7.
a. Suppose you believe KCP’s initial revenue growth rate will be between 4% and 11% (with
growth slowing in equal steps to 4% by year 2011). What range of share prices for KCP is
consistent with these forecasts?
b. Suppose you believe KCP’s EBIT margin will be between 7% and 10% of sales. What range
of share prices for KCP is consistent with these forecasts (keeping KCP’s initial revenue
growth at 9%)?
c. Suppose you believe KCP’s weighted average cost of capital is between 10% and 12%. What
range of share prices for KCP is consistent with these forecasts (keeping KCP’s initial
revenue growth and EBIT margin at 9%)?
Berk/DeMarzo • Corporate Finance, Second Edition131
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
d. What range of share prices is consistent if you vary the estimates as in parts (a), (b), and (c)
simultaneously?
a. $22.85 - $25.68
b. $19.60 - $27.50
c. $22.24 --- $28.34
d. $16.55 --- $32.64
9-22. You notice that PepsiCo has a stock price of $52.66 and EPS of $3.20. Its competitor, the Coca-
Cola Company, has EPS of $2.49. Estimate the value of a share of Coca-Cola stock using only
this data.
PepsiCo P/E = 52.66/3.20 = 16.46x. Apply to Coca-Cola: $2.49 ×16.46 = $40.98.
9-23. Suppose that in January 2006, Kenneth Cole Productions had EPS of $1.65 and a book value of
equity of $12.05 per share.
a. Using the average P/E multiple in Table 9.1, estimate KCP’s share price.
b. What range of share prices do you estimate based on the highest and lowest P/E multiples in
Table 9.1?
c. Using the average price to book value multiple in Table 9.1, estimate KCP’s share price.
d. What range of share prices do you estimate based on the highest and lowest price to book
value multiples in Table 9.1?
9-24. Suppose that in January 2006, Kenneth Cole Productions had sales of $518 million, EBITDA of
$55.6 million, excess cash of $100 million, $3 million of debt, and 21 million shares outstanding.
a. Using the average enterprise value to sales multiple in Table 9.1, estimate KCP’s share price.
b. What range of share prices do you estimate based on the highest and lowest enterprise value
to sales multiples in Table 9.1?
c. Using the average enterprise value to EBITDA multiple in Table 9.1, estimate KCP’s share
price.
d. What range of share prices do you estimate based on the highest and lowest enterprise value
to EBITDA multiples in Table 9.1?
9-25. In addition to footwear, Kenneth Cole Productions designs and sells handbags, apparel, and
other accessories. You decide, therefore, to consider comparables for KCP outside the footwear
industry.
a. Suppose that Fossil, Inc., has an enterprise value to EBITDA multiple of 9.73 and a P/E
multiple of 18.4. What share price would you estimate for KCP using each of these multiples,
based on the data for KCP in Problems 23 and 24?
b. Suppose that Tommy Hilfiger Corporation has an enterprise value to EBITDA multiple of
7.19 and a P/E multiple of 17.2. What share price would you estimate for KCP using each of
these multiples, based on the data for KCP in Problems 23 and 24?
9-26. Consider the following data for the airline industry in early 2009 (EV = enterprise value, BV =
book value, NM = not meaningful because divisor is negative). Discuss the challenges of using
multiples to value an airline.
9-27. You read in the paper that Summit Systems from Problem 6 has revised its growth prospects
and now expects its dividends to grow at 3% per year forever.
a. What is the new value of a share of Summit Systems stock based on this information?
b. If you tried to sell your Summit Systems stock after reading this news, what price would you
be likely to get and why?
9-28. In early 2009, Coca-Cola Company had a share price of $46. Its dividend was $1.52, and you
expect Coca-Cola to raise this dividend by approximately 7% per year in perpetuity.
a. If Coca-Cola’s equity cost of capital is 8%, what share price would you expect based on your
estimate of the dividend growth rate?
b. Given Coca-Cola’s share price, what would you conclude about your assessment of Coca-
Cola’s future dividend growth?
9-29. Roybus, Inc., a manufacturer of flash memory, just reported that its main production facility in
Taiwan was destroyed in a fire. While the plant was fully insured, the loss of production will
decrease Roybus’ free cash flow by $180 million at the end of this year and by $60 million at the
end of next year.
a. If Roybus has 35 million shares outstanding and a weighted average cost of capital of 13%,
what change in Roybus’ stock price would you expect upon this announcement? (Assume the
value of Roybus’ debt is not affected by the event.)
b. Would you expect to be able to sell Roybus’ stock on hearing this announcement and make a
profit? Explain.
9-30. Apnex, Inc., is a biotechnology firm that is about to announce the results of its clinical trials of a
potential new cancer drug. If the trials were successful, Apnex stock will be worth $70 per share.
If the trials were unsuccessful, Apnex stock will be worth $18 per share. Suppose that the
morning before the announcement is scheduled, Apnex shares are trading for $55 per share.
a. Based on the current share price, what sort of expectations do investors seem to have about
the success of the trials?
b. Suppose hedge fund manager Paul Kliner has hired several prominent research scientists to
examine the public data on the drug and make their own assessment of the drug’s promise.
Would Kliner’s fund be likely to profit by trading the stock in the hours prior to the
announcement?
c. What would limit the fund’s ability to profit on its information?-
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Solution: Question_Doc8_15Dec - Answer