Pre- And Post Lab Questions For Spectroscopy Lab

Question # 00791511 Posted By: Eilene Updated on: 01/28/2021 06:17 AM Due on: 02/05/2021
Subject Chemistry Topic General Chemistry Tutorials:
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Pre- and post lab questions for Spectroscopy Lab: due date 10/22020 by 6:00 PM.

Lab manual pages: 23-30

Pre-lab questions on: page 25

Post-lab questions on: pages 29-30

Suggested videos:

Beer's law

General Chemistry II CHM 241


Second Edition

Dr. Ara Kahyaoglu Prof. Jean Acken Associate Professor Assistant Professor

BERGEN COMMUNITY COLLEGE (BCC) is committed to providing quality material that promotes the best in inquiry-based

science education. However, conditions of actual use may vary, and the safety procedures and practices described in this resource

are intended to serve only as a guide. Additional precautionary measures may be required. BCC and the authors do not warrant or

represent that the procedures and practices in this resource meet any safety code or standard of federal, state, or local regulations.

BCC and the authors disclaim any liability for personal inquiry or demand to property arising out of or relating to the use of this

resource, to include any of the recommendations, instructions, or materials contained therein.

Bergen Community College

400 Paramus Road, Paramus, NJ 0765




Bergen Community College 2 General Chemistry II Laboratory



To the instructor,


This manual is available as a free download from the Bergen Community College website.

The Science Department’s aim has been to provide low cost, safe, and interesting, yet

relevant experiments.


Students are to complete the pre-laboratory exercises prior to the laboratory session. The

departmental format for the laboratory report can be found in the course syllabus.


Much effort has been made by the chemistry faculty to review this manual and make it as

error-free and accurate as possible. However, some errors will have escaped our notice.

Your help in forwarding to us any errors, inaccuracies, and/or suggestions will be greatly

appreciated. We will definitely welcome your comments and suggestions. We will make the

changes and improvements as soon as we can to make the updated manual ready for

succeeding semesters. We can be contacted at [email protected] and

[email protected].


Good luck and have a good semester. We look forward to hearing from you.




To the students,


This manual is available to BCC students for free download from the Bergen Community

College website. The Science Department’s aim has been to provide low cost, safe, and

interesting, yet relevant experiments that illustrate the concepts presented in the lecture



Safety is everyone’s number one priority. Do not hesitate to ask your instructor if you do not

understand the procedure.


Keep in mind that your instructor expects you to be prepared for every laboratory session.


We appreciate the efforts of professors PJ Ricatto, Linda Box, Gary Porter, Brent Chapman,

Frank Ramdayal, Farah Rezae and Riwa Dandan through their suggestions and corrections.

Dr. Ara Kahyaoglu, author

Prof. Jean Acken, contributor and editor




mailto:[email protected]

mailto:[email protected]



Bergen Community College 3 General Chemistry II Laboratory



Course Schedule 4

Laboratory Safety 5

Integrity of Data Guidelines 8

Experiment 1. Heat of Fusion 9

Experiment 2. Intermolecular Forces 14

Experiment 3. Spectroscopy 23

Experiment 4. Percent Copper in Brass 31

Experiment 5. Freezing Point Depression 39

Experiment 6. Chemical Kinetics 50

Experiment 7. Le Châtelier's Principle 63

Experiment 8. Coordination Number 75

Experiment 9. Identification of a Weak Acid 83

Experiment 10. Solubility Product 94

Experiment 11. Qualitative Analysis of Cations 101

Experiment 12. Titration of Hydrogen Peroxide 109

Experiment 13. Electrochemistry 119

Experiment 14. Bicarbonate-carbonate mixture 128

Appendix A. Common Laboratory Equipment 135

Appendix B. Volumetric Glassware 136

Appendix C. Graphing 137

Appendix D. Titration 139

Appendix E. Filtration 140

Appendix F. Periodic Table 141






Bergen Community College 4 General Chemistry II Laboratory


Fifteen Week Semester Twelve Week Semester


1. Lab Safety and Exp. 1 1. Lab Safety and Exp. 1

2. Exp. 2 2. Exp. 3 and Exp. 2, Parts A&B (or Part C)


3. Exp. 3 3. Exp. 4 and Exp. 2, Part C (or Parts A&B)


4. Exp. 4 4. Exp. 5

5. Exp. 5 5. Exp. 6

6. Exp. 6 6. Exp. 7 and Exp. 8 part A

7. Exp. 7 7. Exam 1 and Exp. 8 part B

8. Exam 1 and Exp. 8 part A 8. Exp. 9 and Exp. 8 part C

9. Exp. 8 parts B and C 9. Exp. 10*

10. Exp. 9 10. Exp. 11

11. Exp. 10* 11. Exp. 12

12. Exp. 11 12. Exam 2 and Exp. 13

13. Exp. 12

14. Exp. 13 or Exam 2

15. Exam 2 or Exp. 13

*The NaOH solution standardized in Experiment 9 is used again in this experiment.






Bergen Community College 5 General Chemistry II Laboratory



1. Read these safety regulations carefully and be sure you understand them. Before each

laboratory session, your instructor will discuss any safety hazards that may be associated

with that day’s experiment. Therefore, it is imperative that you come to lab on time.

2. Due to safety concerns students who arrive after the pre-lab presentation may not be allowed to perform that particular lab experiment.


3. It is strongly suggested that you obtain a hall locker from the Security Office. Only your lab manual, notebook, and calculator are allowed on the lab bench.


4. Report all accidents, no matter how minor, to your instructor at once. No one in the lab is permitted to give out bandages or medication. You must see the College Nurse.


5. Safety glasses or goggles are required and must be worn by everyone in the lab when experiments are being conducted. Contact lenses are not recommended in the chemistry

lab. Safety glasses are provided by the college, but students may purchase their own.

6. Do not perform any unauthorized experiment.

7. Do not taste anything in the laboratory. Never eat, drink or smoke in any of the labs.

8. You must tie back long hair. Do not wear open-toed shoes, shorts, fuzzy sweaters, loose sleeve shirt or any dangling jewelry. You must cover bare midriffs. You are advised to

wear a lab coat or old clothing to the lab.

9. Do not fill pipettes by mouth. Rubber bulbs or pipette pumps are provided. The instructor will demonstrate how these are to be used.


10. Exercise care when noting the odor of fumes. Use ‘wafting’ if you are directed to note an odor.


11. Do not force glass tubing or a thermometer into rubber stoppers. Lubricate with water and introduce it gradually and gently into the stopper, or insert through a cork borer.

Protect your hands with toweling when inserting without a cork borer.

12. Never point a test tube containing a reaction mixture (especially when heating) toward yourself or another person.

13. No ‘fooling around’ in the laboratory. A less than serious approach to lab work may result in an accident.


14. Before connecting or disconnecting electrical equipment, make sure that the switches are in the off position.



Safety Regulations

Bergen Community College 6 General Chemistry II Laboratory

15. Never work in the laboratory alone.

16. Make sure all apparatus is properly supported on the workbench.

17. Read the label on every bottle twice before using it in the laboratory. Many chemical names are very similar but are very different chemically.


18. Replace caps and stoppers on bottles immediately. Return spatulas to their correct place immediately after use. Do not mix them up.


19. Do not remove or relocate any chemical that has been placed in the hood. Sample it in the hood.


20. Never light a Bunsen burner with a cigarette lighter. Use the strikers that are provided.

21. Students are responsible for keeping their work area neat and orderly. All spills are to be cleaned up immediately using the spill kits located on the instructor’s desk. Solid

chemical waste should be and placed in the appropriately labeled container. Liquid

chemical waste should be poured into the appropriately labeled container. All waste

material should be left in the hood for subsequent disposal. If there is doubt about proper

disposal, ask the instructor.

22. Wash all glassware immediately after use. Place clean glassware on drying rack or in the designated bin on the counter.


23. Dispose of broken glassware in the labeled broken glassware boxes.

24. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory.

25. You must notify your instructor of any chemical to which you are allergic.

26. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant this semester, you must notify your physician that you are enrolled in a chemistry lab course. You and your physician must

decide whether or not it is appropriate for you to remain in the course.


Note the location of the following safety equipment so that you can get to it quickly

in an emergency.













Safety Regulations

Bergen Community College 7 General Chemistry II Laboratory


True False


1. Safety glasses must be worn by everyone working in the lab. T F


2. Only major accidents in the lab need to be reported T F


3. Material Safety Data Sheets are provided in the lab T F


4. Eating and drinking are permitted in the lab T F


5. It is OK to taste a chemical as long as it smells good T F


6. Only authorized experiments are to be performed T F


7. You should wear shoes at all time in the lab T F


8. In order to save time, it is permissible to weigh hot objects T F


9. Broken glassware should be disposed of in the appropriate box T F


10. Working alone in the lab is an acceptable practice T F

A typical Chemistry Laboratory safety YouTube video link is given below: (hold Ctrl Key

and hover the mouse over the link)



Please complete sign this attached form. Remove it from the safety regulations and hand it to

your Laboratory Instructor.


I, the undersigned, have read the Divisional Safety Regulations for the Chemistry

Laboratories. I understand them and will abide by them.


Print your name: ________________________________________________________



Signature: ____________________________________________________________



Date: ____________________________________________________________



Course Name and Number:_______________________________________________



Bergen Community College 8 General Chemistry II Laboratory


One purpose of a laboratory course is to reinforce the concepts covered in the lecture

course. A second, equally important purpose, is to experience working in a chemistry lab, and

to learn about practices and procedures that are employed in such an environment. In addition

to specific laboratory procedures that will be covered in the array of experiments, there are

two universal practices in all laboratory settings- Laboratory Safety, which was discussed in

the previous pages, and Integrity of Data Guidelines.


These guidelines are used in all laboratory settings- from the traditional research

laboratory to hospitals and the physician’s office. The purpose of the guidelines is to ensure

that data is recorded in such a way that its veracity, or authenticity, cannot be questioned.

Taken as a whole, these practices protect the integrity of the data by preventing it from being

changed or recorded in error. Students are expected to follow these integrity of data guidelines

when collecting and recording data. The guidelines are as follows:



1. Data sheets must include the date and the student’s name.

2. Data is recorded in blue or black non-erasable ink; no white-out is permitted.

3. If a mistake is made while entering data, a single line is used to cross it out

and the correct entry is made nearby. (The original entry must be legible.)

4. No transcription is permitted. (Data is recorded directly into the data sheets.)

5. Data is recorded at the time it is observed.





In most laboratories today, notebooks are electronic rather than paper. Although this

renders a different set of guidelines, their purpose is the same- to ensure the authenticity of

data. Laboratory notebook software does not permit a change to be made once data has been

entered. In instances where a change is required, there is a record of the original entry. When

a measurement is recorded on a scrap of paper, that original data is scanned and becomes a

part of the notebook. These and other practices concerning electronic lab notebooks, along

with the guidelines described above regarding paper notebooks, work together to protect the

integrity of experimental data.

Bergen Community College 9 General Chemistry II Laboratory

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