Who invented the education system? The history of education dates at least as far back as the first written records recovered from ancient civilizations. Historical studies have virtually included almost every nation.
According to Wikipedia, ”The history of education in the United States covers the trends in educational formal and informal learning in America from the 17th century to the early 21st century.”
How was education imparted in ancient civilizations?
It is perhaps that the first formal school was developed in Egypt’s the Middle Kingdom under the direction of Kheti who was the treasurer to Mentuhotep II (2061-2010 BC).
- In Mesopotamia, the early logographic system of cuneiform script required a long period of time to master it. Thus only a limited number of individuals were hired as the person who copied documents(when printing was not a thing) to be trained in reading and writing. Only rich people like the royal offspring or sons of the rich and professionals such as physicians, and temple administrators, were schooled and imparted knowledge.
- In ancient Egypt, literacy was concentrated among the educated elite class. Only people from certain backgrounds like the rich background were allowed to get training to become scribes, in the service of the temple, pharaonic, and military authorities.
- In ancient Israel, the Torah (the fundamental religious text) includes commands as to how to read, learn, teach and write the Torah, thus requiring literacy and study. In 64 AD the high priest was the cause that schools got opened.
In ancient India, education was imparted mainly through the education system by the Vedic and the Buddhists. Sanskrit was the language that was used to impart the Vedic education system. Pali was the language which was used in the Buddhist education system.
1. Vedic Education
In ancient India, education was imparted and passed on through oral medium rather than in written form. Vedic Education was a process that contained three steps, first one was Shravana known as hearing which is the acquisition of knowledge by listening to the Shrutis. The second is Manana known as reflection wherein the students think, analyze and make inferences. The third one is Nididhyāsana in which the students apply the knowledge in their real life.
2. Buddhist Education
The subjects included in the Buddhist education system are known as Pitakas.
- Vinaya Pitaka
It is a Buddhist canon that contains a code of rules and regulations that govern the Buddhist community that resides in the Monastery. The Vinaya Pitaka is especially preached by Buddhist monks (Sanga). This means that they have to maintain discipline when interacting with people and nature.
- Sutta Pitaka
It is divided into 5 niyakas known as collections. It includes Buddha’s teachings that are recorded in the form of sermons.
- Abhidhamma Pitaka
It includes a summary and analysis of all of Buddha’s teachings.
According to legends, the rulers Yao and Shun established the first schools that date back to ca. 24th–23rd century BC. The first education system was created in the Xia dynasty. It dates back to 2076–1600 BC. During the Xia dynasty, the main purpose of the government to build schools was to educate aristocrats about rituals, literature, and archery. Archery is important for ancient Chinese aristocrats.
Greece and Rome
In the city-states of ancient Greece, most education that was imparted was private, except in Sparta. For example, in Athens, during the 5th and 4th century BC, aside from two years of military training, the state also played a small part in schooling. Parents were able to choose a school that offered the subjects they wanted their children to learn, at a monthly fee they could afford.
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