Parts of the Brain: Human Brain and its Functions


The brain is a complex three-pound organ that controls thought, memory, emotions, touch, breathing etc. There are various parts of the brain in the human body that regulate bodily functions. Thus, the brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system or (CNS).


Moreover, you’ll be astonished to know that 60% of the brain comprises human fat. At the same time, the remaining 40% is a combination of water, protein, salts and carbohydrates. In addition, the brain is the essential organ of the human body, which connects all other organs. 


The brain allows us to receive information through our five senses: smell, sight, touch, taste and hearing. And, there are three parts of the brain, namely, the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem.


Parts of the Brain and their Functions

As we have mentioned earlier, the human brain is divided into three parts. So let us know more about them and how these organs function.



The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and consists of the right and left hemispheres. In addition, it performs essential functions like hearing, touch, sight, emotions, learning, speech, etc.

Moreover, the cerebrum is divided into two halves: the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere.


Right brain- Left brain

The right and left cerebrum of the hemispheres are joined by the bundle of fibers known as the corpus callosum, which transfers messages from one side to another. So if a stroke occurs on the right or left side of the brain, then that particular side of arms and legs gets paralyzed.


But not all functions of hemispheres are similar. Like left hemisphere controls speech, arithmetic and writing. On the other hand, the right hemisphere controls spatial ability, musical and creative skills. The cerebrum is further divided into four lobes.


Lobes of the Brain

The cerebral hemispheres divide the brain into lobes. And each hemisphere has four lobes, namely, frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. 


  • Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe interprets emotions, speech, behavior, body movement, judgment, problem-solving, and intelligence.


  • Parietal Lobe 

The parietal lobe interprets the language, touch, sense of pain, vision, hearing, memory, spatial ability, and visual perception.


  • Occipital Lobe

This part of the brain is mainly responsible for interpreting the vision (light, movement, color).


  • Temporal Lobe

The temporal lobe is responsible for language understanding, memory, sequence, and organization.



The cerebellum is located just under the cerebrum. Its main functions are to coordinate muscle movements, maintain balance and posture.



The brainstem acts as a link between the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. Its main functions are breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.