Gas laws in chemistry created in the early 17th century. Since then, these laws are assisting scientists in finding volumes, amounts, pressures, and temperature. Primarily, they consist of three laws: Charles’ Law, Boyle’s Law, and Avogadro’s Law. Furthermore, these laws combine into the General Gas Equation and Ideal Gas Law.
One of the best things about gases is that although they differ in chemical properties, they still obey the gas laws. The three fundamental gas laws in chemistry discover the relationship between pressure, temperature, volume, and amount of gas. These are also known as gas variables. Talking of ideal gases, they help in establishing the relationship between these variables. That is why they refer to as perfect gases.
Gas Laws in Chemistry: Overview
The following are some gas laws that assist scientists in various researches.
Robert Boyle gave this law in 1662. It states that the volume of a given amount of gas held at a constant temperature varies inversely with the applied pressure, while the temperature and mass remain constant. In simple words, their products are constant.
P1 V1 = P2 V2
In 1746 Jacques Charles gave this law. Since then, it refers to as Charles’ Law. It states that the volume of a given amount of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. As the temperature goes up, the volume also goes up and vice-versa.
V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 = V3 / T3…. and so on.
Pressure Temperature Law
In 1778 Joseph Gay-Lussac stated that the pressure of a given amount of gas held at constant volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. The pressure will go up with the increase in temperature.
P1 / T1 = P2 / T2 = P3 / T3….. and so on.
Avogadro’s law gives the relationship between volume and amount when pressure and temperature are constant. The measurement of the amount must be in moles. It states the volume occupied by an ideal gas is directly proportional to the gas molecules present in the container. It gives rise to the molar volume of the gas.
V1 / n1 = V2 / n2
The Ideal Gas Law
The laws mentioned above assume that the measured gas is ideal. Thus, the combination of laws presented above generates the ideal gas law. A gas that follows all the laws, as mentioned above, is the ideal gas. The ideal gas law is:
P V = n R T