Science has never failed to amaze us with the deep and significant facts that it quotes of the various things in the universe. While continuously glancing at the earth’s surface, we can never, in our nightmares, imagine it be composed of three layers beneath. Here are the three main layers of the earth’s surface that make up the structure of what we see and walk on. The first layer beneath the surface is the crush, then comes the mantle, and lastly, the core. All the parts have their own unique characteristics and traits.
3 Layers Below the Earth Surface
Crust and Lithosphere
The crust is the cold, thin, and brittle outer shell of rock. The crust divides up into minute tectonic plates. These plates are in relative motion throughout, not stable at all. Due to the continuous movement of this layer, the earth’s surface also experiences sudden quakes and landslides.
There are two types of crust, oceanic and Continental.
- Oceanic Crust: This crust is composed of magma that erupts out of the volcano during an eruption.
- Continental Crust: This crust is made up of various types of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.
The mantle is the thickest layer of the earth’s surface made up of hot and solid rock. It is made up of seismic waves, heat flow, and meteorites. The mantle counts 84% of the whole earth’s surface- its that huge in structure. The heat inside the mantle flows through the process of conduction and convection. There are several layers to it as per the seismological properties. There is an upper mantle extending up to 670 km of the earth’s surface while there’s a lower mantle that extends up to 2900 km.
A core is the dense metallic core present in the center of the planet. The core contains 85% of iron metal and 15% of the nickel metal. To categorize the core portions, there is an outer hardcore and an inner liquid core.
Convection current flows from the inner core to the outer core. The heat that keeps the outer core solidified is due to the radioactive elements in the inner core. The outer core sits 5180 to 2,880 km below the earth’s surface. The outer liquid core solidifies to form the inner hardcore. The cooling rate associated with it is 100-degree Celsius per year. Also, the solid inner core rotates faster with the outer molten core.