The plant cell structure is unique among eukaryotic. Plants cells have a membrane surrounded by nuclei and organelles. Since they can manufacture their food. Chlorophyll gives them a green color. Besides this, it enables plants to use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and carbohydrates.
Plant cells get the protective cell wall structure of their prokaryotic ancestors. The basic plant cell structure does not have centrioles, lysosomes, intermediate filaments, flagella, or cilia. However, they have several other specialized structures like rigid walls, central vacuole, plasmodesmata, and chloroplasts. Plant cell structure can classify into two basic types: Vascular and non-vascular.
Plant Cell Structure
Below are some features of plant cells.
The Cell Wall
It is the rigid layer outside the cell membrane and surrounds the plant cell. The cell wall contains cellulose, protein, and other polysaccharides. It provides structural protection and support. Pores inside the cell wall allow water and nutrients to pass. When water enters the cell, it protects the plant cell from bursting out.
Central Vacuole occupies more than 30% of the cell’s volume. It can hold as much as 90% of the amount in the cell. A layer of membrane called tonoplast surrounds the central vacuole. Proteins in the tonoplast control the flow of water. It contains cell sap, i.e., a mixture of water, enzymes, ions, salt, etc.
Plastids are a group of membrane-bound organelles that carry out many functions. These are responsible for photosynthesis since they store products such as starch. Besides this, they are also responsible for the synthesis of many types of molecules that are essential cellular building blocks.
Types of Plastids
Main types of plastids:
Chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun and use it with water and carbon dioxide to cook food. They are the organelle of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are like flat discs and are 2-10 micrometers in diameter. Some parts of chloroplasts are:
- Stroma – Fluid within the chloroplast
- Grana – Stacks of thylakoid
It stores and makes color-pigmentation, which gives color to petals, fruits, and flowers. Thus, they are in fruits, flowers, roots, and aging leaves. The purpose of chromoplasts is to attract pollinators.
Leucoplasts are pigment-less. They are in non-photosynthetic tissues of plants such as roots, seeds, and bulbs. It has bulk storage of starch, lipid, or protein. Leucoplasts are much smaller than chloroplasts.