Ecosystem: Main Components and Types 

 An ecosystem is a place that helps the living and non-living counterparts to interact with each other. The two components of the ecosystem are the Biotic and Abiotic ecosystem. Here we will discuss the components of the ecosystem one by one.


These components of the ecosystem inter-link together through the energy flow and nutrient cycles. 


Components of Ecosystem

At any point, do you see trees, animals and other things around and feel like they have a connection? Do you know that there is a collaboration between living and non-living things? Well, there’s indeed a connection between the living and non-living things. Read the below-mentioned components of the ecosystem to understand it better. 

Abiotic Ecosystem

This component includes all the non-living organisms, such as minerals, climate, soil, water, sunlight, etc. In simple words, abiotic components are physical and chemical factors that act on the living organism. They are often referred to as ecological components. Here energy enters into the ecosystem through photosynthesis and absorbs by plant tissues. Animals also play an important in moving matter and energy in the system.


Biotic Ecosystem 

This component includes all living organisms, such as aquatic plants, animals, etc. Besides this, it also includes fungi and bacteria. These biotic components of the ecosystem further divided into three broad categories, based on energy need sources. The three categories are as follows:


  • Producers generate their food through the process of photosynthesis, in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. 
  • Consumers are living organisms that feed on plants and animals. 
  • Decomposers are the saprophytes like fungi and bacteria. They feed on the decaying materials and convert it into nitrogen. 


Types of Ecosystem

Aquatic biomes

This ecosystem is present in aquatic biomes like oceans, rivers, seas, etc. Water covers 70% of the earth’s surface. Thus aquatic biomes are major components of the biosphere.they can occur either in the salty or freshwater It is further divided into:


  • Pond ecosystem 
  • River ecosystem
  • Shallow water ecosystem
  • Deepwater ecosystem

Terrestrial biomes

This ecosystem is found on land, including forests, deserts, grasslands, etc. These terrestrial biomes differ by the temperature ranges and amount of precipitation. It is further divided into:


  • Rainforests 
  • Tundra
  • Deserts
  • Forests

Lentic and Lotic Biomes

The lentic ecosystem supports both aquatic and terrestrial life, such as swamps. It deals with still water. But, the lotic ecosystem deals with the flowing water ecosystem like canals, rivers, brooks, and so on.