Types of Blood Cell Present in the Human Body

Types of Blood Cell With Functions

The human body consists of numerous “building blocks of life” that remain enclosed within a membrane containing biomolecules such as protein and nucleic acid. These units of life are known as cells. As per the knowledge, there are many different cells in the body; one such include the blood cells. There are three major types of blood cells, including the RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets. The blood cells are the ones produced during the process of hematopoiesis, i.e., blood cell manufacturing. It sounds great that the production of blood cells is rapid and based on body needs. The replacement of the worn-out blood cells is ten days for the platelets, 120 days for the RBC, and a few days for the WBC. The stats increase the curiosity to know more about the blood cell types and their functions.

For more want more such biology topics, read our blog:-

Concepts of Energy Flow in an Ecosystem

Red Blood Cells – Composition and Functions

The RBCs contain hemoglobin pigment, which enables the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the cells. These types of blood cells are present in the most abundant form because of their fast productivity during hemostasis. RBCs comprise of almost 40-45 percent of the blood’s composition. Their biconcave disc shape makes them look round and flat, like a shallow bowl. As per their shape, they’re thick at the rim and thin in the center. Another reason for the center shallowness is the absence of the nucleus. 

Some Facts about RBCs

  • RBCs are also known as erythrocytes as their production is controlled by the erythropoietin 
  • The red color of the RBCs is due to the iron present in the hemoglobin 
  • This type of blood cell has the ability to transform without breaking
  • The Life Span of the RBCs is 120 days
  • As recorded, the human body produces about 4 million new RBCs per second

Functions of RBCs

  • RBCs have the ability to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body cells
  • On the contrary, they pick Carbon dioxide from the tissues and lead it to the lungs for the purification

Types of White Blood Cells with Functions

This type of blood cell settles only 1% of the blood, making up the major portion of the immune system. The WBCs ensures the protection of the human body against foreign substances and infections. White Blood Cells’ production takes place in the bone marrow through the multipotent cells known as hematopoietic stem cells. Post the production, the WBCs travels to all the parts, including the connective tissue, lymph system, and the bloodstream. 

Some Facts about WBCs

  • Due to excess of medication and harmful radiations, the low WBC count causes a condition of Leukopenia
  • Whereas the high WBC count causes a condition known as Leukocytosis
  • WBCs are divided into two forms:

Granulocytes – Consisting of Grains

Agranulocytes – Free of Grains

White Blood Cell Types 

The main types of white cells that divide up into containing granules and not containing them are as follows: 

Neutrophils (Granulocytes)

  • Account for 62% of WBCs
  • Contain Multi-lobed nucleus 
  • Medium in size with 2000-7500 cells per mm3
  • Life span: 6 hours to a few days
  • Function: Kills bacteria

Eosinophils (Granulocytes)

  • Account for 2.3% of WBCs
  • Have bi-lobed Nucleus
  • 40-400 cells per mm cube
  • Life span: 8-12 days
  • Function: Kills parasites and fight allergic reactions

Basophils (Granulocytes)

  • Account for 0.4% of WBCs
  • Have bi-lobed and tri-lobed nucleus 
  • 0-100 cells per mm cube
  • Life span: a few hours to a few days
  • Functions: resistance against allergic reactions

Lymphocytes (Agranulocytes)

  • Account 30% of WBCs
  • Have a simple nucleus 
  • 1300-1400 per mm cube
  • Life span: Years and weeks
  • Functions: Destroys cancer cells

Monocytes (Agranulocytes)

  • Accounts for 5.3% of the WBCs
  • Kidney shaped nucleus
  • 200-800 per mm cube
  • Life span: Few hours to a few days
  • Function: Destroys old and dead cells in the body itself

Platelets – Functions and Clot Formation

This type of blood cell has no nucleus present. Platelets are small fragments of bone marrow cells that do not reproduce. They have the ability to rush to the site of damage and form a clot that prevents excess bleeding. 

Functions of Platelets

  • This blood cell type promotes blood clotting mechanism, i.e., secretion of procoagulants
  • Platelets constrict blood vessels resulting in the vascular spasms
  • Dissolves blood clots after recovery
  • Digests and destroys the bacteria that cause discrepancies
  • Maintain blood vessel lining through the secretion of growth factors

Blood Clot Formation steps

Platelets are the type of blood cell that undergoes a precise process of blood clot formation. Here is a step-by-step process of how a blood clot prevents bleeding.

  • Narrowing down of the blood vessels to slow the blood flow
  • Sticking of platelets to the damaged area to prevent bleeding
  • Release of substance that activates clotting factor protein
  • Protein factor forms a net that traps RBCs and platelets

These types of blood cells protect the body and build it to perform better. The presence of blood cells in the human body helps it to follow up the transportation of oxygen and minerals, provide immunity, and prevents blood flow. 

Related Questions

Is It Correct to Say in an Essay, “It Helped to Better My Understanding of…”?

Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (Hfacs)