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PHI208 Ashford full course

Question # 00000769
Subject: Philosophy
Topic: General Philosophy
Due on: 09/18/2013
Posted On: 09/06/2013 03:20 PM

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PHI208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning

Week 1

Multimedia
  1. Timeline index. (n.d.)..com/content/select/91/912,91?pageNum_rsSite=0&totalRows_rsSite=78">Philosophy[Interactive timeline]. Retrieved from http://timelineindex.com/content/select/91/912,91?pageNum_rsSite=0&totalRows_rsSite=78
    (It is recommended that you review the interactive timeline in order to supplement this week’s reading assignment.)



Post Your Introduction
To post your introduction, go to this week'sPost Your Introductionlink in the left navigation.
Review the Course Learning Outcomes, located in the Syllabus, under Course Home, in the left navigation toolbar. After introducing yourself, explain what ethics and moral reasoning means to you and why you think it is important to study. Then, answer the following questions:
  1. What would you like to learn or take away from this course?
  2. Are there any questions regarding ethics and moral reasoning you would like answered?
  3. How do you plan to apply the information learned in this course in your personal life or professional career?
Respond to at least three of your classmates' posts. Use this forum to get acquainted and for ongoing non-content related discussions.



Discussions
To participate in the following discussions, go to this week'sDiscussionlink in the left navigation.
  1. What is Philosophy

    Most people have views that are strongly influenced and informed by philosophy, often without realizing it. Identify a view you have—whether on politics, religion, science, culture, or even the media and entertainment—that might be regarded as being related to philosophy. What kind of reasons do you have for holding that belief? What figure from the history of philosophy section do you think might have some views that are similar, or at least relevant, to your own? Explain why you chose that particular figure.

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.
  2. Justifying Beliefs

    Many philosophers insist that our most strongly held beliefs should be examined and critically evaluated. Using the required text and outside sources, explain what philosophers mean when they say that beliefs need justification? What is the importance of subjecting our beliefs to critical scrutiny? What are the advantages of believing something without examining it? What are the disadvantages? Identify a specific belief you have that you think is worth defending, and then explain your reasons for holding that belief. Be sure to include logical reasoning as well as factual evidence in all your arguments.

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.
Week 2

Learning Outcomes

This week students will:
  1. Consider alternatives to classical ethical theories.
  2. Apply ethical theory to contemporary issues.
  3. Justify personal philosophical beliefs regarding contemporary issues.


Required Resources

Required Text
  1. .next.ecollege.com/default/launch.ed?ssoType=CDMS&redirectUrl=https://content.ashford.edu/ssologin?bookcode=AUPHI208.11.1">Philosophy: A concise introduction
    1. Chapter 2: Traditional Theories and Ethics
Articles
  1. Singer, P. (1972). Famine, affluence, and morality.Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1(3), 229-243. Retrieved from JSTOR database.
    (In order to successfully complete this week’s assignment, “Peter Singer – ‘Famine, Affluence, and Morality,’” read the article. JSTOR database is accessible through the Ashford Online Library.)



Recommended Resources

Articles
  1. Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2008)..stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/">Deontological ethics. InThe Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Fall 2008 Edition). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
    (It is recommended that you read this article in order to familiarize yourself with dentological ethics.)
  2. Hursthouse, R. (2012)..stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/">Virtue ethics. InThe Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Summer 2012 Edition. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/
    (It is recommended that you read this article in order to familiarize yourself with virtue ethics.)
  3. Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2011)..stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/">Consequentialism. InThe Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Winter 2011 Edition). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
    (It is recommended that you read this article in order to familiarize yourself with consequentialism.)



Discussions
To participate in the following discussions, go to this week'sDiscussionlink in the left navigation.
  1. Ethics and Relativism

    Our text discusses the challenge relativism presents to various ethical and religious viewpoints. Consider a specific moral question which might make it difficult to accept the relativist's response. State the moral issue involved, and provide an explanation as to why you think a relativist might have a problem giving a justified response to it. In addition, use one of the positive ethical theories from the text to interpret the issue and how one should respond to this issue.

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.
  2. Animal Rights

    Do human beings have any obligations to animals in terms of their treatment? If it is wrong to treat animals cruelly, why is it not wrong to eat them? Explain if, and how, you think humans can find a balance between treating animals ethically while also raising them for food and for other reasons, such as the testing of pharmaceuticals.

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.




Assignment

To complete the following assignment, go to this week'sAssignmentlink in the left navigation.
Peter Singer – “Famine, Affluence, and Morality”

Please read the article “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” by Peter Singer and complete the following tasks:
  1. Explain Singer’s goal in this article, and then present Singer’s argument that supports his position.
  2. Explain three counter-arguments to Singer’s position that he addresses in the article, and then summarize Singer’s responses to those counter-arguments.
  3. Define Singer’s concept ofmarginal utility, and explain how this concept relates to his argument.
  4. Compare how the ideas ofdutyandcharityare different in Singer’s proposed world as opposed to how they are currently used in our society.
  5. Finally, present your personal response to Singer (this should be no more than one page of the entire assignment). Develop an argument either in support of Singer’s position, against his position, or somewhere in the middle in relation to his position. Remember that when you present your own positions you need to support those positions with as much logical reasoning and factual evidence as possible.
The paper must be at least three pages in length, formatted according to APA style, and include a title and a reference page (which does not count towards the page length). Support your point with examples from the text and at least two sources, which can be found in the Ashford Online Library. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.




Week 3


Recommended Resources

Articles

  1. O’Brien, D. (2004, October 10)..iep.utm.edu/epis-per/#SH3b">Sellars and the myth of the given. InThe Epistemology of Perception. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/epis-per/#SH3b
    (This article supplements this week’s required reading. It is recommended that you read the article in order to successfully complete this week’s assignments.)

Websites

  1. .discovery.org/">Discovery Institute(http://www.discovery.org/)
    (In order to successfully complete this week’s assignments, it is recommended that you review the information available at the website.)
  2. .org/">The Panda’s Thumb(http://pandasthumb.org/)
    (In order to successfully complete this week’s assignments, it is recommended that you review the information available at the website.)
  3. .cc.ucf.edu/%7Ejanzb/science/">Philosophy of Science Resources(http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~janzb/science/)
    (In order to successfully complete this week’s assignments, it is recommended that you review the information available at the website.)



Discussions
To participate in the following discussions, go to this week'sDiscussionlink in the left navigation.

  1. The Limits of Skepticism

    Can a person be skeptical about everything, or are there limits? Is it possible to doubt everything or almost everything? Does a person have an obligation to use ethical and moral reasoning when examining ones beliefs? Are there beliefs you possess that cannot be challenged or shown to be false? How might the skeptic respond to your claim that such a belief cannot be doubted? Identify one such specific belief and present your response to the skeptic. (If you don't have such a belief, explain how one could live while not accepting any claim as true.)

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.
  2. Truth and the Limits of Knowledge

    Explain the epistemological perspective from the text (or outside sources) that most coincides with your view of truth and the way that the human mind grasps reality. Explain why you find it to be the best explanation of the way that the human mind is able to understand its world. Finally, present your views on whether humans can actually know the truth about objects or ideas in the world. If you believe they can, explain why. If you do not think they can, explain why not. Feel free to consult outside academic sources in order to explain more of the details of the theory that you describe here.

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.



Assignment
To complete the following assignment, go to this week'sAssignmentlink in the left navigation.

Euthyphro– Plato

In theEuthyphro, Socrates and Euthyphro discuss the concept of piety/holiness. This essay will not only test your ability to recognize and engage philosophical concepts and analysis, but also brings you into the dialogue as a participant, asking you to create your own definition of holiness.

Read the .gutenberg.org/ebooks/1642">Euthyphro, and write a paper in which you do the following:

  1. Explain how the concept of holiness emerges in the dialogue and why it takes a prominent position in the conversation between Socrates and Euthyphro.
  2. Present the three definitions that Euthyphro uses in his response to Socrates, and then present Socrates’s refutation of each of Euthyphro’s definitions.
  3. Develop your own argument as to what you think Socrates’s goal is in this dialogue. How do you know that is his goal? What features of the dialogue align with your interpretation of his goal?
  4. Provide your own definition of piety/holiness and then create a Socratic response/critique of your definition. After you present your definition, take on the role of Socrates and respond to your own definition as you think he would.

The paper must be at least three pages in length, formatted according to APA style, and include a title and a reference page (which does not count towards the page length). For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.

Ashford 5: - Week 4

Recommended Resources

Articles

  1. (n.d.)..philosopher.org.uk/god.htm">Philosophy and the proof of God’s existence. Retrieved from http://www.philosopher.org.uk/god.htm
    (It is recommended that you read the article in order to successfully complete this week’s discussion, “Proof of God’s Existence.”)
  2. Oppy, G., & Dowe, D. (2011)..stanford.edu/entries/turing-test/">The Turing test. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Spring 2011 Edition). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-test/
    (It is recommended that you read the article in order to successfully complete this week’s discussion, “The Turing Test.”)



Discussions
To participate in the following discussions, go to this week'sDiscussionlink in the left navigation.

  1. Proof of God’s Existence

    After reading about the various proofs of the existence of God, identify which of these arguments seems to be the best, and explain why you think so. If you find none of them convincing, present your best argument against one of these proofs and why it fails to accomplish its task. Complete your response by reflecting on why philosophers have sought for thousands of years to provide such proofs, and whether it is necessary to do so.

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.
  2. The Turing Test

    Present three specific questions that you would ask in the Turing Test to determine if something is real or artificial intelligence. Explain why you think these questions would be the type to reveal the computer to be a computer? Why would these responses have to be given by a human being? (If you don't think there are such questions, explain how the three questions you chose would fail to determine which one of the respondents was a computer and which was an actual human.)

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length.

Ashford 6: - Week 5

Discussions
To participate in the following discussions, go to this week'sDiscussion link in the left navigation.

  1. The Meaning of Life

    Chapter 5 is focused on the meaning of human life. Present your view on the ultimate meaning of life. Be sure to back up your view with logical reasoning and as much evidence as you can. What gives human life meaning? How do you know? How should one act in the world once one realizes this meaning? Connect your ideas on the essential meaning of life to the views of at least one philosopher. This philosopher can be someone whom we studied or can come from an outside source. You might connect your ideas in a harmonious or contradictory way. Utilize the academic resources aligned with this course to find a philosopher that coincides with or contradicts your own ideas.

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.
  2. Philosophy and Society

    After watching .intelecomonline.net/playClipDirect.aspx?id=E22DB555B562B4634B7E6D051FE3F775E887BDFAD510E2778E97BB451E6E33A30EEBC78DF63984BEC8D09BCDA68C3422">Relationship of Philosophy to Other Fields, reflect on the relationship of philosophy to your life in terms of your future education and career goals. What value does philosophy have? How can people benefit from thinking more philosophically? How does philosophy affect ethical issues? What significance does thinking and reasoning critically play in society, and in human flourishing?

    Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.



Final Argumentative Paper
To complete the following assignment, go to this week'sFinal Argumentative Paper link in the left navigation.

Final Argumentative Paper

Three important sub-disciplines of philosophy are addressed in this course: ethics, epistemology, and religion. For this paper, you will develop an argument that includes your own view on one specific topic relating to one of these sub-disciplines. Below is a list of topics from which you must choose. Feel free to combine topics that seem to fit with one another. It is recommended that you choose a topic that interests you or that you have thought about previously.

In philosophical papers, it is always best to present both sides of the issue (remember that there are usually more than two sides to any issue), and then to present the side that you find the most convincing. Remember to back up your position with logical reasoning and factual evidence. In addition, be sure to utilize the philosophical content and ideas that you have encountered in this course.

  1. Identify the issue that you are going to examine.
  2. Within that issue, clearly define the specific problem that will be the focus of the paper.
  3. Present multiple sides of the [problem and state your position on the issue.
  4. Create an argument that supports the side of the problem you take in the paper. As part of your argument, be sure to critique the weaknesses of opposing positions.
  5. Utilize the philosophical theories and ideas that you have encountered in this course as much as possible. It is best to utilize primary philosophical texts as resources. Include at least five academic sources in this paper, at least three of which must come from the Ashford University Library. Any other resources should come from academic sources such as Project Gutenberg, classicallibrary.org, or other websites that include peer-reviewed articles and books.

Select a topic from the following sub-disciplines:

  1. Ethics
    1. What is the best ethical system?
    2. Is it necessary to have universal ethical principles?
    3. What are the fundamental principles of ethics?
    4. What is the good life and how does one achieve it?
    5. Is ethics natural or learned behavior?
    6. What is an ethically bad life? How do we know?
    7. How do humans differentiate between good and bad in the realm of ethics?
    8. Do ethical actions have value apart from the outcomes of those actions?
    9. Are humans free or determined, and how does this perspective relate to human responsibility?
  2. Epistemology
    1. What can humans know for certain and how can they justify that they actually know what they think they know?
    2. What are the limits of human perception and cognition?
    3. What is the relationship between scientific knowledge and other types of knowledge?
    4. What are the limits of skepticism?
    5. What are the differences between the mind and the brain?
    6. What is the best epistemological argument and explanation of how humans perceive their worlds?
    7. How did human consciousness emerge and where is it headed?
  3. Religion
    1. Is proof for the existence of God necessary?
    2. Which argument for the existence of God is strongest? Why?
    3. Can one be moral and not believe in God?
    4. Are science and religion in conflict?
    5. Can God’s omniscience and human free will be reconciled?
    6. Is there a rational argument for atheism?

The paper must be at least six pages in length, formatted according to APA style, and include a title and a reference page (which does not count towards the page length). Support your point with examples from the text and at least five sources, three of which must be found in the Ashford University Library. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.

Writing the Final Argumentative Paper
The Final Paper:

  1. Must be at least six pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    1. Title of paper
    2. Student’s name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  6. Must use at least five scholarly sources, including a minimum of three from the Ashford University Library.
  7. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  8. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.




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Preview: quote from Plato seems to be the most fitting. It is simple and to the point. Most people who go to war and actually fight, engaging an enemy, carry the thoughts with them until they eventually expire in their own life. So simply as the quote says Only the dead see the end of war, it is not until one whos been to war actually passes on that the war is actually over. What figure from the history of philosophy section do you think might have some views.....
Famine,_Affluence,_and_Morality.docx (20.39 KB)
Preview: to Singer, giving aid to the suffering of famine is not considered charity yet an act of abiding the norms of our moral.....
PHI-208_Week_3_Assignment.doc (37.5 KB)
Preview: to be truth it is up to each individual to conclude truth based off of the analysis of other known facts. Euthyphro.....
PHI-208_Week_5_Final_Assignment.doc (44 KB)
Preview: systems. The first being legalism, which is the conformity to law or a religious or moral code. Second is antinomianism, which is the rejection of socially established morality, and the third .....
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