1 of 30
Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of uniformitarianism?
All rocks are created in a continuous, uninterrupted and gradual sequence.
Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.
Earth's topography has been shaped by sudden, catastrophic events.
Physical, chemical and biological processes operate today as they have in the past
2 of 30
A _____________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
3 of 30
__________ rocks always originate at the surface of the Earth.
4 of 30
In correct order from the center outward, Earth's layers include:
core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
5 of 30
Which of the following statements is not correct?
Metamorphic rocks form from a magma.
Sedimentary rocks may weather to form other sedimentary rocks.
Magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks.
Igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism.
6 of 30
The composition of the mantle of Earth is thought to be _____.
solid iron-nickel alloy
7 of 30
The ________ is the thinnest layer of Earth.
8 of 30
The relatively stable interior portion of a continent is known as a _____.
9 of 30
Active mountain belts are most likely to be found _____.
in the interior of continents
along the northern margins of continents
randomly scattered throughout continents
along the margins of continents
10 of 30
I see crossbedding forming in the dunes of the modern world's deserts.
I find crossbedding in the rocks of Zion National Park and I decide that those rocks formed in a large dune field.
I have used the Principle of _______________ to make that decision.
11 of 30
The Earth is _______ years old.
12 of 30
Oceanic crust is __________ continental crust.
less dense than
about the same density as
of more variable density than
13 of 30
Water does not classify as a mineral because it _____.
does not have a defined chemical composition
is never molten
is found in plants
14 of 30
Which of the following would not be a crystal?
broken chunk of quartz
cube of halite
15 of 30
On the Mohs Scale of Hardness, the softest mineral is
16 of 30
Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?
Nuclei of bonding atoms exchange electrons; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the negative and positive nucleons.
Atoms of two different elements share electrons and protons; the resulting compound is bonded together by the strong, binding energy of shared protons.
Nuclei of two different atoms share electrons, and the resulting compound is tightly bonded by the very strong, induced, electronuclear bonds.
Atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges.
17 of 30
Which of the following describes a mineral's tendency to split along smooth, parallel planes of atomic weakness?
18 of 30
Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters.
They are black to dark-green and contain iron and magnesium.
They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the element calcium and magnesium.
They contain magnetite and hematite and are rusty red.
19 of 30
Which one of the following is an abundant product of weathering?
20 of 30
Granite is an example of a/an ______________ igneous rock.
21 of 30
A magma cools for a long time beneath the Earth's surface and then flows in a volcanic eruption.
A ______________ igneous rock will result.
22 of 30
The intrusive rock ________ has the same chemical composition and mineralogy as the extrusive rock ____________.
23 of 30
A rock that will float in water is
24 of 30
If the oceanic crust of the Earth cracks, the rocks below may _____.
melt due to decompression
shrink in volume
instantly explode due to exposure
not change in consistency
25 of 30
The presence of water causes _____.
slowing of crystallization
rocks to melt at lower temperatures
raising of rocks' melting temperatures
26 of 30
Bowen's Reaction Series indicates that amphibole and an intermediate composition plagioclase feldspar crystallize earlier from a cooling magma, while quartz and potassium feldspar crystallize later.
If an igneous rock containing these four minerals is heated to a temperature at which melting begins, _____.
all four minerals will melt at the same temperature
the amphibole and plagioclase feldspar will start melting before the other minerals
the quartz and potassium feldspar will start melting before the other minerals
amphibole and quartz will melt first, then the feldspars
27 of 30
The incorporation of host rock into a magma is called _____.
28 of 30
Magmas that produce stratovolcanoes are _____.
high in silica and viscous
high in silica and fluid
low in silica and viscous
low in silica and fluid
29 of 30
The Hawaiian Islands are a chain of _____.
30 of 30
An igneous intrusion that resembles the filling in a layer cake is called a _____.