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American Public University SCIN 136 Final Exam- Introduction to Oceanography

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Subject: Geography
Topic: General Geography
Due on: 05/05/2014
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SCIN-136 Final Exam
Question 1 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which current would not be part of the so-called Wal-Mart Trade route from Asia?
A.the Gulf Stream
B.the North Pacific Equatorial
C.the Kuroshio
D.the California Current
E.the Alaska
Question 2 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The Gulf Stream Current would primarily affect weather and climate patterns in the following area/areas:
A.Western Mexico
B.New England, U.S.
C.Hawaii
D.Western Europe
E.both b and d
F.the Strip in Vegas and will be playing there all week.

Question 3 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following is the fastest, most powerful ocean current in the world?
A.Kuroshio Current
B.West Wind Drift
C.the Gulf Stream
D.the Humbolt Current
E.the North Equatorial Current
F.Splash Mountain at Disney World


Question 4 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The best fishing in the world occurs in areas of:
A.tsunamis
SCIN-136 Final Exam Page 1 of 21
B.plate movement
C.stong Coriolis forces
D.upwelling


Question 5 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The nutrient enrichment caused by upwelling occurs because:
A.surface water sinks
B.there are local hydrothermal vents
C.deep water rises
D.there is great surf. Kawabunga!


Question 6 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The El Nino phenomenon is caused by the reversal of which of the following currents?
A.Gulf Stream
B.Kuroshio
C.Pacific Equatorial
D.West Wind Drift


Question 7 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Possible triggering mechanisms for tsunamis include:
A.temperature changes in seawater
B.variations in tidal range
C.heavy sediment deposits
D.heavy runoff following large rains
E.seismic movements
F.a serious drop in both the Dow and NASDAQ stock prices


Question 8 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of these factors effects the velocity of a tsunami?
A.it decreases closer to shore
B.it is a function of the severity of the earthquake that caused it
C.it is a function of the depth of the water
D.all of the above

Question 9 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The ocean most recently open to commercial explotitation is the:
A.Atlantic
B.Arctic
C.Pacific
D.Indian

Question 10 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The highest tides that occur at the full and new moon phases are called:
A.neap tides
B.spring tides
C.diffraction tides
D.density tides
E.none of the above
Question 11 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following would be an estuary on the U.S. Gulf Coast?
A.bayou
B.fjord
C.sound
D.atoll
E.lagoon
Question 12 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Beaches can be categorized by:
A.color
B.particle size
C.shape
D.composition
E.all of the above

Question 13 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
A coastal feature that was created by glaciers would be:
A.barrier coasts
B.fjords
C.dune coasts
D.atolls
E.barrier reefs
F.hockey rinks

Question 14 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Why would a coastal storm like a hurricane, typhoon or Nor'Easter be more destructive during a full moon?
A.Moonlight on the oceans increases the water temperatures thus giving the storm more thermal energy
B.There is increased Corolis Effect during a full moon
C.Spring tides bring storm surge further ashore
D.The Geico geeko and Flo from Progressive insurance can't swim. Thus they will drown and therefore
insurance claims won't get paid.
E.Cute unsuspecting college kids passed out on the beach during Spring Break might get caught
unaware and thus miss final exams.

Question 15 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Coastal wetlands are important because they:
A.serve as barriers to storm surge thus preventing coastal flooding.
B.are a source for food for marine organisms
C.provide shelter for organisms
D.serve as spawning grounds for some organisms
E.all of the above


Question 16 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Estuaries are critically important because they are:
A.breeding grounds
B.waste disposal areas
C.plate boundries
SCIN-136 Final Exam Page 4 of 21
D.have great depth

Question 17 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
In which estuary is the circulation dominated by tidal processes?
A.well-mixed estuary
B.salt wedge estuary
C.partially-mixed estuary
D.fjord
E.b and d

Question 18 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following is NOT a major estuary due to the oceanic conditions there?
A.Bay of Fundy
B.Chesapeake Bay
C.bayous of Louisanna
D.Puget Sound
E.sounds of the Carolinas

Question 19 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Areas along the U.S. East and Gulf coasts of the U.S. have long sandbars that parallel the coast-line and stick
up out of the water. Many of these coastal features have become resorts like Nags Head NC, Hilton Head SC,
Pensacola FL. But they are very unstable geologically (all sand no bedrock); thus they are very prone to storm
and flood damage. These features are known as:
A.fjords
B.atolls
C.seamounts
D.barrier islands
E.terminal morrianes


Question 20 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following process/forces is the MAJOR cause of sand being transported and redistributed at various beaches along a coast:
A.tsunamis
B.diurnal tidal cycles
C.long-shore current
D.upwelling
E.esturine food webs
F.Condo developers and real estate agents


Question 21 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The maximum depth of the photic zone would be:
A.10 - 40 m
B.50 - 100 m
C.150 - 200 m
D.500 - 750 m
E.1000 - 1200 m


Question 22 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The base of the food chain in the oceans relies on this process:
A.photosynthesis
B.agrisynthesis
C.chemosynthesis
D.carbosynthesis
E.a or c depending on the area


Question 23 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The limiting factor for photic zone primary productivity at HIGH LATITUDES/polar areas is:
A.temperature
B.nutrient supply
C.amount of dissolved gas
D.availability and intensity of sunlight
E.stability of the water column


Question 24 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
SCIN-136 Final Exam Page 6 of 21
Primary productivity in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents depends on:
A.sunlight
B.nutrients
C.carbon dioxide gas
D.water temperature
E.chemosynthesis from hydrogen-sulfide


Question 25 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The level of productivity of the open ocean is equivalent to this area in the U.S.:
A.St Paul, MN
B.Yuma, AZ
C.Omaha, NB
D.Cascade Mtns, WA.
E.Sitka, AK
Question 26 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The most concentrated biological production in the oceans occurs in which of these areas?
A.zones of upwelling
B.the eastern sides of ocean basins
C.the open ocean
D.estuaries
E.a and d

Question 27 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Respiration CONSUMES which of the following?
A.carbon dioxide
B.oxygen
C.water
D.phosphorus
E.nitrogen


Question 28 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Only about ____ percent of the available energy is transferred between each trophic level.
SCIN-136 Final Exam Page 7 of 21
A.5%
B.10%
C.15%
D.20%
E.25%


Question 29 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The statement "there are no marine/salt-water viruses" is:
A.true, since viruses can only infect land animals like humans.
B.true, because the ions in saltwater destroy virus structures
C.false, there are plenty of marine viruses it is just that they have not been studied extensively yet.
D.there is no data about marine viruses in existance.
E.it will require "Flipper" to get a flu shot that will be covered by his health-care coverage as part of the
Marine Mammal Protection Act.

Question 30 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following are zooplankton?
A.diatoms
B.foraminiferans
C.radiolarians
D.b and c only
E.all of the above
Question 31 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The zooplankton group Chordata (also referred to sometimes as the meroplankton) includes tunicates, salps
and all:
A.mollusks
B.vertebrates/fish larva
C.crustaceans
D.coelenterates
E.poreifria
F.new Jersey Shore cast members

Question 32 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
In the ocean around Antarctica is a small shrimp that forms the basis for the food chain. It's called:
A.phytoplankton
B.zooxanthalle
C.diaton
D.krill
E.penguins

Question 33 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Many organisms that live at great depths have light-producing organs on their bodies. Organisms that have
these organs are referred to as being:
A.camoflauged
B.counter-shaded
C.bioluminescent
D.cryptic
E.they have glowing personalities

Question 34 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
_____________ are the only trees who can stand having their roots imersed in salt water and grow in the
Florida Keys and around most of the tropical coastlines.
A.Coconut
B.Cypress
C.Mangrove
D.Acacia

Question 35 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Possible triggering mechanisms for red tides include:
A.temperature changes
B.variations in light
C.high salinities
D.heavy runoff of nutrients following large rains
E.all of the above
F.None of these are contributing factors.

Question 36 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following organisms is most likely to be adversely affected by red tide algae bloom?
Hint: Which of these organisms is a filter-feeder and why would that matter in this situation?
A.oysters
B.crabs
C.tuna
D.starfish

Question 37 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following is an invertebrate phylla?
A.Aves
B.Osteoichthyes
C.Reptilia
D.Mammalia
E.Mollusca


Question 38 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following are vertebrates?
A.cnidarians
B.mollusks
C.fish
D.echinoderms
E.poreiferia
Question 39 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Crabs, and lobsters are most closely related which of the following?
A.Mussels
B.Tunicates
C.corals
D.shrimp

Question 40 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Clams, mussles, and oysters are classified as:
A.crusteacens
B.mollusks
C.nematodes
D.chrondricthyes

Question 41 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which type of feeding mechanism best describes clams, mussels,oysters, and baleen whales?
A.photosynthetic
B.filter-feeders
C.carnivoires
D.grazers

Question 42 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Squid and octopus are most closely biologically related to:
A.skates
B.cod
C.lobsters
D.clams
E.their In-Laws

Question 43 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Coelenerates/Cnidarians include which of the following:
A.corals and jellyfish
B.sharks and rays
C.tuna and salmon
D.crabs and lobsters

Question 44 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The group mentioned above (coelenerates/cnidarians) have stinging cells called __________ which can still inject venom after the organism itself dies.
A.fangs
SCIN-136 Final Exam Page 11 of 21
B.erythrocytes
C.nematocysts
D.leukocytes

Question 45 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
____________ are the simplest macroscopic multicellular animals. Here's a hint: they have glass-like
spicules in their tissues.
A.Jellyfish
B.Bryzoans
C.Tunicates
D.Sponges
E.amoeba
F.euglena

Question 46 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following organisms would be most likely found in the intertidal saltmarshes of the US Alantic coast? From Cape Cod south and around the Gulf coast to Texas.
A.blue crab
B.salmon
C.lobsters
D.baleen whales

Question 47 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Corals have associated algae called ___________ which live symbiotically in their tissues.
A.zooxanthalle
B.phytoplankton
C.red tide
D.kelp
E.Snookie-cells.

Question 48 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Mass die-offs of corals have occurred around the world. These die-offs are referred to as:
A.turbidity
B.parasitism
SCIN-136 Final Exam Page 12 of 21
C.symbiosis
D.bleaching

Question 49 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Australia has a huge underwater feature off of it's eastern coast. This is:
A.the Malacca Archipelago
B.the East Pacific Rise
C.Bikini Atoll
D.the Great Barrier Reef

Question 50 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following fish species is most likely found around a coral reef?
A.salmon
B.cod
C.parrot fish
D.latern fish

Question 51 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The last geologic stage in the formation of a coral island is:
A.barrier reef
B.atoll
C.fringing reef
D.tombolo
E.beach-front timeshares get built

Question 52 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following states has the giant kelp forests?
A.Maryland
B.Maine
C.California
D.Hawaii

Question 53 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The top or keystone predators of the kelp forests are:
A.seals
B.walrus
C.sea otters
D.killer whales
E.polar bears

Question 54 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Organisms that are free-swimming are called:
A.nekton
B.plankton
C.benthic
D.krill
E.unmotivated

Question 55 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Fish's gills actually utilize __________ in order for the fish to breath.
A.the compound water itself
B.nitrogen
C.carbon-dioxide
D.dissolved oxygen
E.hydrogen sulfide

Question 56 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
A lamprey is an member of which of the following groups?
A.cartilagenous fish
B.bony fish
C.invertebrate
D.jawless fish

Question 57 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The family of fish that are classified as sharks is because:
A.they have cartlaginous skeletons
B.they are man-eaters/person-eaters
C.they have internal swim bladders
D.you always hear cool music when you see 'em and they are featured at Universal Studios in Orlando.

Question 58 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Bottom fish are typically: Think flounder vs tuna.
A.slower than surface fish
B.have brighter colors
C.are poisonous
D.are larger than surface fish
E.are faster than Michael Phelps.

Question 59 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Sea turtles:
A.lay eggs on land
B.are endangered in many areas
C.are migratory
D.all of the above


Question 60 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The most dangerous snake in the world (has the most toxic venom) is:
A.spitting cobra
B.diamondback rattlesnake
C.banded sea snake
D.black mamba

Question 61 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The two families of whales are:
A.benthic and nekton
B.vertebrate and invertebrate
C.dolphin and porpoise
D.baleen and toothed

Question 62 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Manatees are endangered because:
A.they have a very low reproductive rate
B.they are specialized feeders (only eat a few types of plants)
C.are docile
D.live in Florida rivers with high boat traffic
E.all of the above
F.a and c only

Question 63 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following is not a toothed whale?
A.sperm
B.dolphin
C.killer
D.humpback
E.narwahl

Question 64 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following whale species are NOT endangered and are even being harvested by nations like
Japan and Norway?
A.blue
B.sei
C.orca
D.minke
E.narwhal

Question 65 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The whale that gave rise to the legend of the unicorn lives off of Greenland. It is called a:
A.narwhal
B.blue whale
C.sperm whale
D.killer whale

Question 66 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
If a diver comes up too quickly from depth he or she may get a condition known as the "bends". Therefore divers must __________ before surfacing.
A.pray
B.decompress
C.vent their suits
D.remove all gear
E.check their life insurance policies

Question 67 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The basis of the food chain at the deep hydothermal vents is: _________
A.phytoplankton
B.copepods
C.diatoms
D.chemosynthetic bacteria
E.deep-sea Subway shops

Question 68 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Large macroscopic organisms which are also included in the hydrothermal vent ecosystems are:
A.tube worms
B.shrimp
C.osteoichythes
D.nudibranchs

Question 69 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
For a species to be economically viable for mariculture/aquaculture:
A.the young should be hardy
B.it should be inexpensive to raise
C.it should command a high price
D.it should reproduce readily in captivity
E.all of the above

Question 70 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following countries has the least amount of aquaculture production?
A.Japan
B.US
C.Germany
D.Mexico
E.New Zealand

Question 71 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Scientists believe that life might have been "seeded" in the early oceans by comets bringing which of the
following to the early oceans on Earth?
A.radioisotopes
B.algae
C.rock material
D.amino acids
E.the cast of Jersey Shore.

Question 72 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following occurrences on Earth eventually allowed life to come out of the oceans and onto land?
A.Comet and meteor impacts ceased.
B.Continental crust cooled and all volcanic activity ceased.
C.Precipitation began over the continents.
D.Photosynthesis by phytoplankton created the ozone layer to stop U.V. radiation.
E.Banks created home mortgage loans

Question 73 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Many species of fish have been overharvested to the point they are referred to as being:
A.endangered
B.commercially extinct
C.exploited
D.prized

Question 74 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The MAJOR factor in sea-level rise due to global warming is:
A.sea ice would melt
B.land ice would melt
C.the seawater would expand with increasing surface temperature
D.all of the above
E.no changes in sea level, Al Gore was just kidding.

Question 75 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Oil spilled at sea may do which of the following?
Think about what happened after the B.P. oil spill. Also when looking at the choices think about WHY many
clean-up workers wore masks and got headaches cleaning up oil in the hot Sun.
A.evaporate
B.be deposited onto the beach
C.sink to the sea floor
D.disperse and mix with the water
E.Result in a lot of really dumb TV commercials where the oil company says: "We're sorry and we'll
make everything right". At least enough so we won't get sued.
F.all of the above

Question 76 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following pollutants will have the longest residence-time in the oceans: Which one will stay
around in the oceans for the longest amount of time?
SCIN-136 Final Exam Page 19 of 21
A.oil spills
B.fertilizer runoff
C.ozone
D.green-house gasses
E.plastics

Question 77 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following pollutants was the primary cause of the Mississippi River Dead Zone?
A.plastics
B.sediments
C.species depletion due to over-fishing
D.nutrient runoff
E.none of the above

Question 78 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
The greenhouse effect:
A.is caused by an increase in the amount of incoming solar radiation
B.is caused by an increase in CO2
C.is a result of ozone depletion
D.will not have much of an impact on coastal regions
E.a and b

Question 79 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Many species of marine organisms have ended up in areas where they are not native (zebra mussels, green crabs, etc) and thus have greatly disrupted the ecosystems in the new areas they populate. They have made these moves due to:
A.a response to global warming.
B.being transported in ships ballast water.
C.normal migrations.
D.strong storm surges
E.the after effects of tsunamis.

Question 80 of 80 1.25/ 1.25 Points
Which of the following oceanographic events is most scientifically predicable ONE YEAR IN ADVANCE OF
THE EVENT?
A.Spring high tide
B.tsunami
C.hurricane
D.red tide outbreak
E.None of these events can be predicted that far in advance.

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American Public University SCIN 136 Final Exam- Introduction to Oceanography Answers

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