BSC2346 Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Module 11 Final Exam
Which statement is true regarding the special senses?
Rod and cone cells are the only two types of gustatory cells
Sensory hair cells of the olfactory bulb bind molecules within the nose that ultimately allow for the sense of smell
The cochlea within the inner ear allows for the sense of equilibrium
The pupil is responsible for refracting incoming light
Which region of the brain stem is associated with nuclei centers that control various autonomic activities such as sneezing, coughing and respiration rate?
Which statement is true of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration?
Anaerobic respiration utilizes oxygen and glucose to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Aerobic respiration produces more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules compared to anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration produces no waste products
Cells can only perform aerobic respiration to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Blockage of the auditory (Eustachian) tube can result in conductive hearing loss.
Which statement is true regarding myelin sheaths?
Myelin sheaths are found only on neurons in the peripheral nervous systems
Myelin sheaths allow for action potentials to be transmitted faster within the dendrites of neurons
The spaces between each myelin sheath are referred to as the “Node of Ranvier”
Collections of myelin sheaths within the nervous system give nerve tissue a dark appearance, which is referred as gray matter
Which of the following is found in the epidermis layer of skin?
All of the following are symptoms of diabetes mellitus, EXCEPT:
Hyperthyroidism is commonly caused by insufficient amounts of the element iodine within the body.
Which of the following statements is true of the ciliary body of the eye?
It produces a vitreous humor that fills the posterior chamber of the eye
It contains muscles that help assist in control the thickness and size of the lens
It is involved in controlling the amount of light that is allowed into the eye
The suspensory ligaments create the color of iris
Which endocrine hormone is stored in the posterior pituitary and increases the amount of water reabsorbed in the kidneys increasing blood pressure and blood volume?
Which statement is regarding the dorsal horn of the spinal cord?
It is composed of white matter
It receives afferent information from the peripheral nervous system
It contains tracts that send impulses to the brain
It provides a pathway for information from the brain to the efferent peripheral nervous system
Which organelle is responsible for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
A dermatome is associated with a specific cranial nerve that innervates the body’s skin.
Which statement is true regarding the CNS?
The spinal cord terminates at the sacrum
The white matter of the brain is only found in the cerebellum
The left hemisphere of the cerebrum primarily controls the right side of the body
Damage to the primary somatosensory center of the brain will result in an inability to move skeletal muscles
Which statement is true regarding the skeletal system?
Flat bones are composed completely of compact bone
External stresses placed on bone (such as exercise) will decrease the bone matrix density
Red bone marrow is the site of hematopoiesis
Osteoclasts secrete collagen fibers to increase bone density
The nerve plexuses of the body allow for individual nerves to have axons from multiple nerve root levels.
The autonomic nervous system will innervate both internal organs and skeletal muscles.
Which endocrine hormone, in higher quantities, can suppress the function of the immune system and decrease inflammation of the body?
One of the main functions of the gyri and sulci is to allow for increased surface area of the cerebral cortex.
The cerebellum is primarily involved with conscious thought and emotions.
A ligament can reduce the friction of a tendon rubbing over a bone.
A ligament connects a muscle to a bone, while a tendon stabilizes a joint by connecting or joining one bone to another.
Which statement is true regarding skeletal muscle tissue?
Muscle cells have the exact same structure as cardiac muscle tissue
The neuromuscular junction is where the neurotransmitters are released and bind to the muscle cell
The muscle cells need little to no adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The thick and thin filament permanently bind together to allow for muscle contraction to occur
Calcitonin will cause an increase activity in which of the following cells?
What statement is true regarding the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
The efferent division of the PNS is transmits information from sensory receptors to the brain
The somatic division of the PNS refers to the innervation of the internal organs of the body
The ventral root of the spinal nerve transmits afferent information to the spinal cord
The autonomic nervous system is a branch of the visceral efferent division of the PNS
What statement is true regarding reflexes?
Neural integration (processing) of all reflexes occurs in the brain
The sensory neuron of a reflex arc transmit efferent impulses to the spinal cord
The Babinski’s test is testing a specific reflex of the lower motor neurons
The deep tendon reflex is commonly initiated with a reflex hammer in a neurological examination
Which bone cell is activated by calcitonin and is responsible for “building” bone tissue?
Damage to an upper motor neuron can cause a positive Babinski’s sign.
All of the following are symptoms of hypothyroidism, EXCEPT:
Dry and itchy skin
Increased heart rate
The spiral organ contains hair cells that form action potentials when stimulated to allow for the sense of smell to occur.
Which statement is true of dendrites?
They support the immune system of the nervous system
Most neurons have only one dendrite
They transmit information to other neurons and/or cells
They are the main input regions of the neurons
Which type of neuroglia cell forms myelin sheaths on axons within the peripheral nervous system?
Which statement is true of epiphyseal plates?
Found in the bone marrow region of long bones
If active, allows for continued longitudinal (lengthwise) growth of bone
Epiphyseal plates are not present in infants
Typically close around the age of 12 years of age
A neurotransmitter bound to a postsynaptic neuron membrane can initiate an action potential.
An increase in the level of thyroid hormone causing a decrease in TRH and TSH is an example of negative feedback.
Energy is created in which cellular organelle?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following muscles is considered a rotator cuff muscle?
Both the epidermis and dermis contain blood vessels.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the eye?
The cornea provides the eye with the ability to adjust the amount of light coming into the eye
The region of the fovea centralis has a high concentration of cone cells
The blind spot of the eye has a high concentration of rod cells
The choroid of the eye is where the photoreceptor cells are found
The melanocytes are the most common cell in the epidermis and produce melanin.
Which of the following is not an effect of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Constriction of the pupils
Increased blood flow to the digestive system
Increased respiration rate
Decreased heart rate
The epidermis is composed of which type of tissue?
Which of the following is a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
Provide chemical stability to the peripheral nervous system
Provide buoyancy to the brain and spinal cord
Help transmit electrical impulses within the central nervous system
Assist in the protection of the peripheral nervous system
Which of the following statements is true regarding the special senses?
Damage to CN II could cause a loss of the ability to taste
The blind spot of the eye contains a high concentration of rod cones
The tympanic membrane is the sense organ for the utricle and saccule
The cristae ampullaris contains the sensory hair cells that when stimulated, detect rotational movement of the head
Wolff’s law of bone states that bone density is directly related to the stress placed on the bone.
Which of the following choices best describes the joint between the fontal bone and parietal bones?
Which statement is true regarding articulations?
The cartilage found between two vertebrae is elastic cartilage
The hip joint is classified as a synovial joint
The knee joint contains a labrum which helps stabilizes the joint
The knee joint has more than ten ligaments that stabilize it
Which of the following is NOT necessary for muscle contraction to occur?
Nerve impulse (action potential)
Sodium ions to bind to the thin filament
Acetylcholine to bind to the sarcolemma receptors
Production and presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Which statement is true regarding a spinal (peripheral) nerve?
Each nerve contains a single axon
They can contain afferent axons only
They innervate all regions of the body, including the head
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Peripheral neuropathy can cause damage to axons of peripheral nerves leading to dysfunction of the conduction of an action potential.