Introduction to Management Spring, Course Code 44453 Assignment: Test 2, Chapters 4, 5, 7
Assignment: Test 2, Chapters 4, 5, 7
When faced with an ethical issue in business, people rely on the laws enacted by the Congress to decide what is right or wrong.
Unlike utilitarianism, egoism directly seeks the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
People in Kohlberg's conventional stage of cognitive moral development conform to the expectations of ethical behavior held by groups or institutions such as society, family, or peers.
Milton Friedman contended that a business cannot increase its profits while conforming to society's laws and ethical customs.
A company can easily avoid environmental issues since the creation and distribution of wealth generates very few by-products.
Ecocentric management centers around practices that maximize current economic growth, irrespective of the potential harm to future generations.
_____ refers to the moral principles and standards that guide the behavior of an individual or group.
The legal system
Caring, being honest, showing loyalty, being fair, and acting with integrity are all examples of:
_____ refers to the principles, rules, and values people use in deciding what is right or wrong.
_____ is the ethical system stating that all people should uphold certain values that society needs to function.
Donna prefers gymnastics to music. However, she agrees to attend music lessons because her parents want her to become a musician. According to Kohlberg's model of cognitive moral development, she resides in the _____ stage.
John Rawls, a philosopher, maintained that only a person ignorant of his or her own identity can make a truly ethical decision. This thought experiment is based on:
the veil of ignorance.
the "light of day" principle.
the concept of "strategic philosophy."
the concept of a transcendent education.
the "sunshine" ethical framework.
In the context of the business costs of ethical failures, which of the following is a level 3 cost?
Cost of government oversight
Administrative and audit cost
Cost of corrective action
Cost of remedial education
Employee cynicism cost
In the context of business ethics, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 issued a broader _____ rule in order to address the weaknesses of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
sexual harassment protection
human rights responsibility
In the context of corporate social responsibility, _____ responsibilities are to obey local, state, federal, and relevant international laws.
According to Robert Giacalone, a(n) _____ education teaches students to leave a legacy that extends beyond the bottom line.
Which of the following goals of a transcendent education is described as thinking not just in terms of "don'ts" (lie, cheat, steal, kill), but also in terms of positive contributions?
Intolerance of ineffective humanity
In the context of a transcendent education, _____ refers to feeling your decisions as potential victims might feel them, to gain wisdom.
intolerance of ineffective humanity
The final step in the formal planning process, monitoring and controlling performance, identifies the priorities and trade-offs among the goals and plans.
An organization's mission statement focuses on long-term goals while its strategic vision focuses on short-term plans.
Functional strategies are implemented only at the top levels of management.
Which of the following steps in the formal planning process involves studying past events, examining current conditions, and forecasting future trends?
Analyzing the situation
Selecting goals and plans
Monitoring and controlling performance
Evaluating goals and plans
Generating alternative goals and plans
The process of translating broad strategic goals and plans into specific goals and plans relevant to a particular portion of the organization is known as:
Which of the following is true of the strategic vision of an organization?
The strategic vision emphasizes short-term gains of an organization.
A strategic vision statement is a clear and concise expression of the organization’s basic purpose.
The strategic vision describes the organization as it currently operates.
The strategic vision provides a perspective on where the organization is headed.
An effective strategic vision statement must motivate all employees financially.
Which of the following is true of strategic control systems?
These systems are designed to help determine the organization’s output by evaluating price competition.
The first component of the strategic management process is strategic control.
Corrective action is taken when discrepancies exist between an organization’s progress and its strategy.
They must rigidly enforce the strategic plan in the face of changing conditions.
Unlimited spending may be allowed as long as the organization is progressing according to its strategy.
Shadow Blinds, an American company, is trying to decide whether to open its first international branch in Europe or Asia. The managers of the company are operating under a condition of _____.
illusion of control
A formal decision-making process has six stages. Which of the following is one of these stages?
Controlling the damage caused by a wrong decision
Evaluating the decision
Anticipating the outcome of a decision
Minimizing the consequences of a decision
Thriving on the risks of taking a decision
The first step in an ideal decision-making process is to:
generate alternative solutions.
implement the decision.
identify the problem.
make a choice.
In the context of generating alternative solutions during the decision-making process, _____ solutions must be designed for specific problems.
Pat has to decide which paper clips to purchase for her office. She looks at the office supply catalog and picks the first one that is priced reasonably. Which method of making a decision does she use?
_____ refer(s) to a decision bias influenced by the way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or presented.
An illusion of control
Discounting the future
Discounting the future refers to:
valuing short-term benefits more heavily than long-term benefits.
failing to consider inflationary costs.
underestimating the short-term effects of a decision.
focusing on gains in the long run.
failing to consider the effects of new entrants into the industry.
When a group accepts an alternative without taking the time or effort to explore many options, the group has reached a _____ decision.
_____ is a condition that occurs when a decision-making group loses sight of its original purpose and a new, less important aim emerges.
Illusion of control
The board of directors, led by the chairperson, makes major decisions affecting the organization, subject to corporate charter and bylaw provisions.
The first step in effective delegation is selecting the person to whom one will delegate the work.
In decentralized organizations, more decisions are made at lower levels.
The unity-of-command principle states that a person should have multiple managers who give subordinates a unified message.
Large organizations are typically less organic and more bureaucratic than small ones.
Which of the following types of information is conveyed by a traditional organization chart?
The way in which decisions are made in the organization.
The work performed by each unit in the organization.
The products manufactured by the organization.
The way in which the organization will interact with the external environment.
The location of the organization.
Authority is directly related to the three broad levels of the organizational pyramid, commonly known as _____.
division of labor
In the context of the vertical structure of a firm, a wide span of control builds a _____ organization with fewer reporting levels.
Which of the following is true of effective delegation?
The ideas of the subordinate should not be taken into consideration.
The manager should select a person who is most devoted to him or her.
Throughout the delegation process, the manager and the subordinate must work together.
Once the task has been delegated, the manager need not be available.
The manager should give as little time as possible for completion of the task.
In a(n) _____ organization, important decisions usually are made at the top.
Gabriella recently accepted a job with a large insurance company as an internal auditor. She found that her job was quite different from the internship she had done. Her company had strictly defined job responsibilities and lines of communication. For every decision she needed to make, approval had to be obtained from upper management. Overall, she found the atmosphere to be quite formal. Gabriella’s organization has a(n):
wide span of control.
high degree of centralization.
Sports International manufactures and distributes clothing, sporting equipment, and protective sports gear worldwide. They are departmentalized by products sold to serious athletes, products sold to "weekend" athletes and products sold to sports teams. Which approach to departmentalization does the company follow?
A(n) _____ is composed of temporary arrangements among members that can be assembled and reassembled to meet a changing competitive environment.
In the context of organizational agility, which of the following is true of learning organizations?
They avoid benchmarking in order to keep up internal performance standards.
They hold lower-level employees accountable for delivering a good service.
They ensure that there is a consensus about the direction in which the business is heading.
They are skilled at experimenting with new approaches.
They make decisions based on gut feelings.
One of the most important contributions to total quality management has been the introduction of statistical tools to analyze the causes of product defects, in an approach called:
six sigma quality.
total quality integration.
The production of both high-volume and high-variety products at the same time is referred to as: