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Devry ETHC445 Final exam 2017

Question # 00489705
Subject: Business
Topic: Management
Due on: 02/23/2017
Posted On: 02/23/2017 12:08 PM

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Page One

This exam covers all 14 TCO's.

For each of the following multiple choice questions, please select the Philosophy (and/or Philosopher) which best goes with each description below.

Question 1.1. (TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be always prohibited reflects what type of ethics? (Points : 5)

Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean

Kant's Categorical Imperative in the 1st Formulation)

Hobbes' concept of the State of Nature

Thomas Aquinas' concept of Natural Law

Bentham's principle of pleasure and pain

Question 2.2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the moral ideal of prudence? (Points : 5)

Taking a traditional approach to problematic situations

Choosing behavior judiciously by consulting experience

Taking care to slow down decision making

Avoiding risks

Resisting impulsiveness

Question 3.3. (TCOs 1, 2) One of the common errors in Ethics is that of the hasty conclusions. Hasty conclusions consist of what? (Points : 5)

Rushed work under pressure

Comparing unknown cases to known ones to find precedents

Embracing conclusions before examining cases fully

Judging cases by the source of their origin

Belief that first impressions are valid until challenged

Question 4.4. (TCO 2) Prescriptive language used in ethical discussions is characterized by which of the following words? (Points : 5)

Cannot be

Could be

Used to be

Should be

Must be

Question 5.5. (TCOs 7, 8) Each person ought to do whatever will best promote his or her own interests. (Points : 5)

Utilitarianism

Kant's Categorical Imperative

Social Contract Theory

Ethical Egoism

Gilligan

Question 6.6. (TCOs 2, 4, 9) "The right thing to do is to follow the rules that rational, self-interested people can agree to establish for their mutual benefit." This is a belief of what? (Points : 5)

Ethical Egoism

Utilitarianism

Kant's Categorical Imperative

Social Contract Theory

Marxism

Question 7.7. (TCOs 3, 6) Animal sentience is demonstrated by all the following except which one? (Points : 5)

Consciousness

Awareness

Response to external painful stimuli

Animatedness

Emotive response

Question 8.8. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant said that the only thing "good without qualification" is what? (Points : 5)

The best interests of all concerned

Acts of mercy

The amount of happiness produced

Personal virtues

A good will

Question 9.9. (TCOs 8, 9) Which ethical concept is organized and directed toward following the greatest happiness principle? (Points : 5)

Natural ethics and law

Justice and mercy

Rights and responsibilities

Virtue-ethics of excellence

Principle of utility

Question 10.10. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Syllogisms in formal deductive logic are called "sound" when the syllogism is determined to be "valid" and: (Points : 5)

the premises share common terminology.

there are three or more premises.

the premises are true statements.

all of the premises are written in present tense.

the premises have been independently cited.

Question 11.11. (TCOs 1, 2) When choosing one course of action while working with a dilemma, the other courses of action are lost and become unavailable. This makes ethical choices in dilemma situations particularly what? (Points : 5)

Incoherent

Complicated

Illogical

Painful

Cruel

Question 12.12. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Where did Thomas Aquinas say that conscience originates? (Points : 5)

Through the hard work of reasoning

Direct gift from God in all cultures through natural law

An a priori source

By observing the objects and actions of the world

An empirical response of guilt for past actions

Question 13.13. (TCOs 2, 8) The rule or principle to be applied in making decisions is an example of which kind of ethical discovery process? (Points : 5)

Principle of utility

A posteriori rationality

A priori rationality

Empirical rationality

Scientific method

Question 14.14. (TCOs 1, 2, 5) The world view of ruthless and unending competition for property and wealth was spelled out in which of these concepts? (Points : 5)

Locke’s notion of the natural state of man

Rawls’ notion of the veil of ignorance

Aristotle’s notion of the doctrine of the mean

Hammurabi’s code of law

Hobbes’ state of nature

Question 15.15. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Which school of ethics is primarily applied as a practical matter through rights and duties? (Points : 5)

Objectivism

Normative ethics

Consequentialist ethics

Deontological ethics

Interdisciplinary ethics

Question 16.16. (TCOs 2, 7, 8) Personal development and discovery through the repetition of good acts and study of virtue characterizes what ethicist? (Points : 5)

Plato

Aristotle

Luther

Augustine

Socrates

Question 17.17. (TCOs 2, 8) Professional codes of conduct serve what function for business and industry? (Points : 5)

Allow businesses to avoid training professional staffers

Enable transfer of valued employees across state lines

Enable contracting of temporary employees

Specify continuing education needs and requirements

Providing assurance of the professional qualifications of members

Question 18.18. (TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle's Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the deficiency of it.

If the virtue is GENEROSITY, and the excess is WASTEFULNESS, what is the deficiency?

(Points : 5)

Carefulness

There is no deficiency

Being broke (having no money)

Stinginess

Moderation

Question 19.19. (TCOs 8, 9) The Ethical Resolution Models practiced during Week 6 provide people in conflict with greater opportunity to consider the consequences of their actions. What type of ethics is this? (Points : 5)

Deontological

Care-based

Social Contract

Aristotelian

Utilitarian

Question 20.20. (TCOs 1, 2) The Latin term a priori describes the origin of knowledge developed rationally, and the term a posteriori describes knowledge developed through observation and experience. What is an example of ethics is best described as discovered in an a priori manner? (Points : 5)

Utilitarian ethics

Objectivist ethics

Deontological ethics

Political ethics

Scientific ethics\

Question 1. 1. (TCOs 1, 2, 3, 7) In support of TCO #7 and in the Week 7 discussions, you developed and placed into the threaded discussions your personalized ethics statement of what has become important to you in the practice of ethics as you have practiced ethics during the course. Your first task in this question is to briefly present that personalized statement in just a few sentences before continuing with the question. Much of the rest of the exam will involve your working with that personalized statement through brief applications and cases.

Use your ethical philosophy to solve the following ethical situation. Explain how your philosophy helped you make your decision.

Anticipating the possibility that their soldiers may one day be captured by the enemy, some modern armies include in their basic training exposure to simulated yet intimidating torture techniques. That is, they subject their own troops to mild forms of simulated torture in order that they may learn how to resist torture and not divulge the plans and classified information that they know. Some other armies actually train through experience of torture.

Is this practice justifiable ethically? If you believe it is justifiable only under certain conditions, specify the conditions. Explain and defend your position, and then explain how your ethical philosophy helped you come to this conclusion.

(Points : 30)

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Question 2. 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Analyze the following ethical situation using YOUR ethical philosophy. Read the situation and then in your answer, explain why this is an ethical situation, what the "issues" are, and how an "ethical" person would resolve them. Explain how YOUR ethical philosophy statement has helped you read a conclusion about how to resolve or analyze this situation.

Construction companies must usually engage in competitive bidding for their contracts. This practice demands that they anticipate every material and labor cost months and even years ahead and commit themselves to complete a project for a specified amount of money. A mistake in calculating or a failure to anticipate a significant increase in prices can bankrupt a company.

Consider the situation of the combination of the unexpected increase in lumber prices due to the war in Iraq and Afghanistan with multiple hurricanes in the United States in the past few years.

1. Would it be ethical for a company who had won a bid for a construction job before the increase in lumber prices, to use substandard materials in order to offset the increase in lumber prices after the fact?

2. Would it be ethical for a customer to hold the contractor to the original bid after unplanned and unprecedented lumber price increases occur, knowing it will cause the contractor to go bankrupt, or do the job at a huge loss?

3. How would your answer to #2 change if your customer was Donald Trump or a community pantry feeding program for the homeless. Explain.

(Points : 30)

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Question 3. 3. (TCOs 1, 7, 9) How do you feel John Stuart Mill would have solved the above ethical situation differently or the same as you did using your philosophy? Please explain the reasons for the similarities or differences. (Points : 40)

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Question 4. 4. (TCOs 1, 2, 4, 9) John and Marsha are both married to other people and the parents of several children, and they are having an adulterous affair. One night, when they are meeting secretly, they witness a murder. They agree that they cannot risk reporting it without exposing their affair. The next day the body is found and within a week a suspect is apprehended and charged with first-degree murder. When John and Marsha see his picture in the newspaper, they realize that he is not the murderer. They meet again, discuss their dilemma, and decide that despite the new, dreadful development, they will not step forward as witnesses.

Tell what ethical philosophy the John and Marsha are using, if any.

Now, use your ethical philosophy statement to analyze the situation. Explain how, using your philosophy, you would have solved this situation either the same way as the characters in the situation did, or differently.

The question surrounds the issue of coming clean about the murderer, not whether you would have engaged in the affair or not. (Thus, you cannot say, "I would never have the affair" as your solution. Pretend you are an advisor to the two of them--not that you are the two of them. What would YOU tell them to do at this point?) Why?

(Points : 30)

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Question 5. 5. (TCOs 5, 6) You work for a grocery store and a new manager is hired to oversee your department. He comes into your department (the butcher shop) and explains to you that for the past 6 months, your department has been losing money for the store because of the waste and spoilage going on from having to discard unsold meat and poultry. He tells you that from now on, he wants you to package ground meat in smaller, more compact packages, with older meat on the bottom of the package (so it is not visible to the customer) and the fresher meat on the top, where it is visible to the customers. In this way, you can move more of the older meat and still receive the top dollar for it. As he leaves the department where you were having the discussion, he turns and says, "And by the way, one more month of losses like we had last month from this department, and you can kiss your job goodbye."

Will you repackage the meat in the way he requested?

Why or why not? Explain what ethical analysis you used to come to this conclusion.

(Points : 30)

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Question 6. 6. (TCOs 6, 8) Analyze your answer above using the Front Page of the Newspaper ethical dilemma resolution model. Show your steps. (Points : 40)

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Devry ETHC445 Final exam 2017

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