ECONOMICS 305: Intermediate Macroeconomics Spring 2016 ASSIGNMENT #6
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ECONOMICS 305: Intermediate Macroeconomics
Spring 2016 ASSIGNMENT #6
DUE DATE: Thursday, May 5, noon.
QUESTION 1  Openness in Goods and Financial Markets
a) Explain the three types of trade that countries conduct.
b) Define the nominal exchange rate of a country. Define the real exchange rate of a
country. Why is the real exchange rate the appropriate price for thinking about decisions
by consumers and firms about whether to buy domestic or foreign goods and services?
c) Explain how the nominal exchange rate, and domestic and foreign price inflation affect
the real exchange rate.
d) If the domestic country’s real exchange rate (currency) depreciates, how would you
expect this to affect the domestic country’s trade balance in goods and services? Explain.
e) What do we mean by purchasing power parity (a theory of real and nominal exchange
rates)? If the domestic country’s price level declines, what does purchasing power parity
predict would tend to happen to the nominal exchange rate and foreign price level?
Explain.
f) What is the source of large differences between the GDP and GNP of oil exporting
countries? In answering the question, explain carefully the difference between gross
domestic product and gross national product.
g) Suppose the uncovered interest parity condition holds, and that the domestic interest
rate is lower than the foreign interest rate. What does this imply about the current versus
future expected currency value for the domestic country?
h) Assume that the oneyear interest rate in the United States is 4% and that the oneyear
interest rate in Canada is 3%. According to uncovered interest rate parity, what does this
imply about the current versus the future expected value of the US dollar? Explain.
i) Explain why a simple comparison of the interest rates on domestic and foreign bonds
might provide misleading information about which bonds yield the highest expected
returns.
QUESTION 2 – An Open Economy Model of the Goods Market
a) Explain the difference between: (a) the demand for domestic goods; and (b) the domestic
demand for goods. In your answer, write down equations which describe (a) and (b).
b) Explain the determinants of (a) exports and (b) imports. Write an algebraic expression for
each.
c) Explain why the demand for domestic goods curve (ZZ) has a different slope than the
domestic demand curve (DD).
d) Using the ZZ/Y and NX graphs, illustrate graphically and explain what effect an increase
in taxes, T, will have on output, exports, imports, and net exports. Clearly label all curves and
clearly label the initial and final equilibria.
e) Using the ZZ/Y and NX graphs, illustrate graphically and explain what effect an increase
in foreign output (Y*) will have on output, exports, imports, and net exports. Clearly label all
curves and clearly label the initial and final equilibria.
f) Explain why the multiplier for autonomous demand changes in an open economy is
different from the multiplier in a closed economy.
g) Explain the MarshallLerner condition. Assuming that the MarshallLerner condition
holds, and using the ZZ/Y and NX graphs, illustrate graphically and explain in words what
effect a real depreciation will have on output, exports, imports, and net exports. Clearly label
all curves and clearly label the initial and final equilibria.
h) Suppose a country is experiencing a situation where output is above the full employment
or natural level, and has a trade deficit. Further assume that the policy makers' goals are to
achieve full employment output and balanced trade. Given this information, what type of
exchange rate and/or fiscal policy can be used to achieve simultaneously these two goals?
Explain your answer carefully.
i) Using the ZZ/Y and NX graphs, illustrate graphically and explain what effect an increase in
government spending will have on output, exports, imports, and net exports. Clearly label all
curves and clearly label the initial and final equilibria.
QUESTION 3 – An Open Economy Model of the Goods Market
Consider an open economy characterized by the following equations:
???? = ????0 + ????1(???? ? ????)
???? = ????0 + ????1????
???????? = ????1???? ???? = ????1????
?
The parameters ????1 and ????1 are the marginal propensities to import and export respectively.
Assume that the real exchange rate is fixed at a value of 1, and treat foreign income Y* as
fixed. Let taxes T be fixed, and G be determined exogenously by the domestic government.
a) Write the equilibrium condition in the market for domestic goods and solve for the
equilibrium value of Y.
b) Suppose government purchases, G, increase by one unit. What is the quantitative
effect on output? (Assume that 0 < ????1 < ????1 + ????1 < 1 and explain why.)
c) What is the quantitative effect for net exports change when government purchases
increase by one unit?
Now let there be two economies, one with ????1 = 0.5 and another with ????1 = 0.1. Each
economy is characterized by ????1 + ????1= 0.6.
d) Suppose one of the economies is much larger than the other. Which economy do you
expect to have the larger value of ????1? Explain.
e) Calculate your answers to b) and c) for each economy by substituting in the
appropriate parameter values.
f) In which economy will fiscal policy have a larger effect on output? In which economy
will fiscal policy have a larger effect on net exports? Explain your answers.
QUESTION 4 – Open Economy ISLM Model (Only if we complete Chapter 20 in class)
a) In an economy operating under flexible exchange rates, explain why the IS curve
is downward sloping.
b) Explain what the IP curve is and why it is upward sloping.
c) Suppose the domestic and foreign interest rates are both initially equal to 3%.
Now suppose the domestic interest rate rises to 5%. Explain what effect this will
have on the exchange rate. Also explain what must occur for the interest parity
condition to be restored.
d) Suppose the domestic and foreign interest rates are both initially equal to 4%.
Now suppose the foreign interest rate rises to 6%. Explain what effect this will
have on the exchange rate. Also explain what must occur for the interest parity
condition to be restored.
e) Explain what effect each of the following events will have on the IS curve in a
flexible exchange rate regime: (1) an increase in foreign output; (2) a reduction in
the foreign interest rate; and (3) an increase in the domestic interest rate. Show
each of these effects in a diagram.
f) Assume the exchange rate is allowed to fluctuate freely. Using the ISLMIP model,
graphically illustrate and explain what effect an increase in government spending
will have on the domestic economy. In your graphs, clearly label all curves and
equilibria.
g) Assume the exchange rate is allowed to fluctuate freely. Using the ISLMIP model,
graphically illustrate and explain what effect monetary contraction will have on
the domestic economy. In your graphs, clearly label all curves and equilibria.
h) Assume the exchange rate is allowed to fluctuate freely. Using the ISLMIP model,
graphically illustrate and explain what effect a reduction in foreign output (Y*)
will have on the domestic economy. In your graphs, clearly label all curves and
equilibria.
i) For a country pursuing a fixed exchange rate regime, what does the interest parity
condition imply about domestic and foreign interest rates? Explain.
j) To what extent can monetary policy be used to affect output in a fixed exchange
rate regime? Explain.
k) Assume the exchange rate is fixed. Using the ISLM model, graphically illustrate
and explain what effect a reduction in consumer confidence will have on the
domestic economy. In your graphs, clearly label all curves and equilibria.
l) Assume that policy makers are pursuing a fixed exchange rate regime. Now
suppose that the foreign interest rate increases. Discuss what policy makers must
do to maintain the pegged exchange rate. Also discuss what effect this will have
on domestic output and net exports.
Spring 2016 ASSIGNMENT #6
DUE DATE: Thursday, May 5, noon.
QUESTION 1  Openness in Goods and Financial Markets
a) Explain the three types of trade that countries conduct.
b) Define the nominal exchange rate of a country. Define the real exchange rate of a
country. Why is the real exchange rate the appropriate price for thinking about decisions
by consumers and firms about whether to buy domestic or foreign goods and services?
c) Explain how the nominal exchange rate, and domestic and foreign price inflation affect
the real exchange rate.
d) If the domestic country’s real exchange rate (currency) depreciates, how would you
expect this to affect the domestic country’s trade balance in goods and services? Explain.
e) What do we mean by purchasing power parity (a theory of real and nominal exchange
rates)? If the domestic country’s price level declines, what does purchasing power parity
predict would tend to happen to the nominal exchange rate and foreign price level?
Explain.
f) What is the source of large differences between the GDP and GNP of oil exporting
countries? In answering the question, explain carefully the difference between gross
domestic product and gross national product.
g) Suppose the uncovered interest parity condition holds, and that the domestic interest
rate is lower than the foreign interest rate. What does this imply about the current versus
future expected currency value for the domestic country?
h) Assume that the oneyear interest rate in the United States is 4% and that the oneyear
interest rate in Canada is 3%. According to uncovered interest rate parity, what does this
imply about the current versus the future expected value of the US dollar? Explain.
i) Explain why a simple comparison of the interest rates on domestic and foreign bonds
might provide misleading information about which bonds yield the highest expected
returns.
QUESTION 2 – An Open Economy Model of the Goods Market
a) Explain the difference between: (a) the demand for domestic goods; and (b) the domestic
demand for goods. In your answer, write down equations which describe (a) and (b).
b) Explain the determinants of (a) exports and (b) imports. Write an algebraic expression for
each.
c) Explain why the demand for domestic goods curve (ZZ) has a different slope than the
domestic demand curve (DD).
d) Using the ZZ/Y and NX graphs, illustrate graphically and explain what effect an increase
in taxes, T, will have on output, exports, imports, and net exports. Clearly label all curves and
clearly label the initial and final equilibria.
e) Using the ZZ/Y and NX graphs, illustrate graphically and explain what effect an increase
in foreign output (Y*) will have on output, exports, imports, and net exports. Clearly label all
curves and clearly label the initial and final equilibria.
f) Explain why the multiplier for autonomous demand changes in an open economy is
different from the multiplier in a closed economy.
g) Explain the MarshallLerner condition. Assuming that the MarshallLerner condition
holds, and using the ZZ/Y and NX graphs, illustrate graphically and explain in words what
effect a real depreciation will have on output, exports, imports, and net exports. Clearly label
all curves and clearly label the initial and final equilibria.
h) Suppose a country is experiencing a situation where output is above the full employment
or natural level, and has a trade deficit. Further assume that the policy makers' goals are to
achieve full employment output and balanced trade. Given this information, what type of
exchange rate and/or fiscal policy can be used to achieve simultaneously these two goals?
Explain your answer carefully.
i) Using the ZZ/Y and NX graphs, illustrate graphically and explain what effect an increase in
government spending will have on output, exports, imports, and net exports. Clearly label all
curves and clearly label the initial and final equilibria.
QUESTION 3 – An Open Economy Model of the Goods Market
Consider an open economy characterized by the following equations:
???? = ????0 + ????1(???? ? ????)
???? = ????0 + ????1????
???????? = ????1???? ???? = ????1????
?
The parameters ????1 and ????1 are the marginal propensities to import and export respectively.
Assume that the real exchange rate is fixed at a value of 1, and treat foreign income Y* as
fixed. Let taxes T be fixed, and G be determined exogenously by the domestic government.
a) Write the equilibrium condition in the market for domestic goods and solve for the
equilibrium value of Y.
b) Suppose government purchases, G, increase by one unit. What is the quantitative
effect on output? (Assume that 0 < ????1 < ????1 + ????1 < 1 and explain why.)
c) What is the quantitative effect for net exports change when government purchases
increase by one unit?
Now let there be two economies, one with ????1 = 0.5 and another with ????1 = 0.1. Each
economy is characterized by ????1 + ????1= 0.6.
d) Suppose one of the economies is much larger than the other. Which economy do you
expect to have the larger value of ????1? Explain.
e) Calculate your answers to b) and c) for each economy by substituting in the
appropriate parameter values.
f) In which economy will fiscal policy have a larger effect on output? In which economy
will fiscal policy have a larger effect on net exports? Explain your answers.
QUESTION 4 – Open Economy ISLM Model (Only if we complete Chapter 20 in class)
a) In an economy operating under flexible exchange rates, explain why the IS curve
is downward sloping.
b) Explain what the IP curve is and why it is upward sloping.
c) Suppose the domestic and foreign interest rates are both initially equal to 3%.
Now suppose the domestic interest rate rises to 5%. Explain what effect this will
have on the exchange rate. Also explain what must occur for the interest parity
condition to be restored.
d) Suppose the domestic and foreign interest rates are both initially equal to 4%.
Now suppose the foreign interest rate rises to 6%. Explain what effect this will
have on the exchange rate. Also explain what must occur for the interest parity
condition to be restored.
e) Explain what effect each of the following events will have on the IS curve in a
flexible exchange rate regime: (1) an increase in foreign output; (2) a reduction in
the foreign interest rate; and (3) an increase in the domestic interest rate. Show
each of these effects in a diagram.
f) Assume the exchange rate is allowed to fluctuate freely. Using the ISLMIP model,
graphically illustrate and explain what effect an increase in government spending
will have on the domestic economy. In your graphs, clearly label all curves and
equilibria.
g) Assume the exchange rate is allowed to fluctuate freely. Using the ISLMIP model,
graphically illustrate and explain what effect monetary contraction will have on
the domestic economy. In your graphs, clearly label all curves and equilibria.
h) Assume the exchange rate is allowed to fluctuate freely. Using the ISLMIP model,
graphically illustrate and explain what effect a reduction in foreign output (Y*)
will have on the domestic economy. In your graphs, clearly label all curves and
equilibria.
i) For a country pursuing a fixed exchange rate regime, what does the interest parity
condition imply about domestic and foreign interest rates? Explain.
j) To what extent can monetary policy be used to affect output in a fixed exchange
rate regime? Explain.
k) Assume the exchange rate is fixed. Using the ISLM model, graphically illustrate
and explain what effect a reduction in consumer confidence will have on the
domestic economy. In your graphs, clearly label all curves and equilibria.
l) Assume that policy makers are pursuing a fixed exchange rate regime. Now
suppose that the foreign interest rate increases. Discuss what policy makers must
do to maintain the pegged exchange rate. Also discuss what effect this will have
on domestic output and net exports.

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ECONOMICS 305: Intermediate Macroeconomics Spring 2016 ASSIGNMENT #6