PHI 208 WEEK 1 Discussions
What is Philosophy
Most people have views that are strongly
influenced and informed by philosophy, often without realizing it.
Identify a view you have—whether on politics, religion, science,
culture, or even the media and entertainment—that might be regarded as
being related to philosophy.
What kind of reasons do you have for
holding that belief? What figure from the history of philosophy section
do you think might have some views that are similar, or at least
relevant, to your own? Explain why you chose that particular figure.
philosophers insist that our most strongly held beliefs should be
examined and critically evaluated.
Using the required text and outside
sources, explain what philosophers mean when they say that beliefs need
justification? What is the importance of subjecting our beliefs to
critical scrutiny? What are the advantages of believing something
without examining it? What are the disadvantages? Identify a specific
belief you have that you think is worth defending, and then explain your
reasons for holding that belief.
Be sure to include logical reasoning
as well as factual evidence in all your arguments.
PHI 208 WEEK 2 Discussions
Ethics and Relativism
Our text discusses
the challenge relativism presents to various ethical and religious viewpoints.
Consider a specific moral question which might make it difficult to accept the
relativist's response. State the moral issue involved, and provide an
explanation as to why you think a relativist might have a problem giving a
justified response to it. In addition, use one of the positive ethical theories
from the text to interpret the issue and how one should respond to this issue.
Do human beings
have any obligations to animals in terms of their treatment? If it is wrong to
treat animals cruelly, why is it not wrong to eat them? Explain if, and how,
you think humans can find a balance between treating animals ethically while
also raising them for food and for other reasons, such as the testing of
PHI 208 WEEK 2 ASSIGNMENT FAMINE, AFFLUENCE, AND MORALITY
Peter Singer – “Famine, Affluence, and Morality”
Please read the article “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” by Peter Singer and complete the following tasks:
Singer’s goal in this article, and then present his argument in
relation to this issue. Explain three counter-arguments to Singer’s
position that he addresses in his article, and then indicate Singer’s
responses to those counter-arguments. Define Singer’s concept of
marginal utility and identify how it relates to his argument. Compare
how the ideas of duty and charity change in Singer’s proposed world?
Finally, present your personal response to Singer (this should be no
more than one page of the entire assignment). Provide an argument either
in support of Singer’s position, against his position, or somewhere in
the middle of his position. Remember that when you present your own
positions you need to support those positions with as much logical
reasoning and factual evidence as possible. The paper must be at least
PHI 208 WEEK 3 discussions
The Limits of Skepticism
Can a person be skeptical about everything,
or are there limits? Is it possible to doubt everything or almost
everything? Does a person have an obligation to use ethical and moral
reasoning when examining ones beliefs. Are there beliefs you possess
that cannot be challenged or shown to be false? How might the skeptic
respond to your claim that such a belief cannot be doubted? Identify one
such specific belief and present your response to the skeptic. (If you
don't have such a belief, explain how one could live while not accepting
any claim as true.)
Truth and the Limits of Knowledge
the epistemological perspective from the text (or outside sources) that
most coincides with your view of truth and the way that the human mind
grasps reality. Explain why you find it to be the best explanation of
the way that the human mind is able to understand its world. Finally,
present your views on whether humans can actually know the truth about
objects or ideas in the world. If you believe they can, explain why. If
you do not think they can, explain why not. Feel free to consult outside
academic sources in order to explain more of the details of the theory
that you describe here.
WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT EUTHYPHRO – PLATO
Euthyphro – Plato
In the Euthyphro, Socrates and Euthyphro discuss
the concept of piety/holiness. This essay will not only test your
ability to recognize and engage philosophical concepts and analysis, but
also brings you into the dialogue as a participant, asking you to
create your own definition of holiness. Read the Euthyphro, and write a
paper in which you do the following:
1.Explain how the concept of
holiness emerges in the dialogue and why it takes a prominent position
in the conversation between Socrates and Euthyphro.
three definitions that Euthyphro uses in his response to Socrates, and
then explain how Socrates refutes each of Euthyphro’s definitions.
your own argument as to what you think Socrates’s goal is in this
dialogue. How do you know that is his goal? What features of the
dialogue align with your interpretation of his goal?
own definition of piety/holiness and then create a Socratic
response/critique of your definition. After you present your definition,
take on the role of Socrates and respond to your own definition as you
think he would.
Euthyphro – Plato In the Euthyphro, Socrates and
Euthyphro discuss the concept of piety/holiness. This essay will not
only test your ability to recognize and engage philosophical concepts
and analysis, but also brings you into the dialogue as a participant,
asking you to create your own definition of holiness. Read the
Euthyphro, and write a paper in which you do the following: 1.Explain
how the concept of holiness emerges in the dialogue and why it takes a
prominent position in the conversation between Socrates and Euthyphro.
2.Present the three definitions that Euthyphro uses in his response to
Socrates, and then explain how Socrates refutes each of Euthyphro’s
definitions. 3.Formulate your own argument as to what you think
Socrates’s goal is in this dialogue. How do you know that is his goal?
What features of the dialogue align with your interpretation of his
goal? 4.Provide your own definition of piety/holiness and then create a
Socratic response/critique of your definition. After you present your
definition, take on the role of Socrates and respond to your own
definition as you think he would.
PHI 208 WEEK 4 discussion
Proof of God’s Existence
After reading about the various
proofs of the existence of God, identify which of these arguments seems
to be the best, and explain why you think so. If you find none of them
convincing, present your best argument against one of these proofs and
why it fails to accomplish its task. Complete your response by
reflecting on why philosophers have sought for thousands of years to
provide such proofs, and whether it is necessary to do so.
The Turing Test
three specific questions that you would ask in the Turing Test to
determine if something is real or artificial intelligence. Explain why
you think these questions would be the type to reveal the computer to be
a computer? Why would these responses have to be given by a human
being? (If you don't think there are such questions, explain how the
three questions you chose would fail to determine which one of the
respondents was a computer and which was an actual human.)
initial post should be at least 200 words in length. Support your claims
with examples from this week’s required material(s) and/or other
scholarly resources, and properly cite any references
PHI 208 WEEK 5 discussions
Chapter 5 is focused on the meaning of human life. Present
your view on the ultimate meaning of life. Be sure to back up your view
with logical reasoning and as much evidence as you can. What gives human
life meaning? How do you know? How should one act in the world once one
realizes this meaning? Connect your ideas on the essential meaning of
life to the views of at least one philosopher. This philosopher can be
someone whom we studied or can come from an outside source. You might
connect your ideas in a harmonious or contradictory way. Utilize the
academic resources aligned with this course to find a philosopher that
coincides with or contradicts your own ideas.
Philosophy and Society
After watching Relationship of Philosophy to
Other Fields, reflect on the relationship of philosophy to your life in
terms of your future education and career goals. What value does
philosophy have? How can people benefit from thinking more
philosophically? How does philosophy affect ethical issues? What
significance does thinking and reasoning critically play in society, and
in human flourishing?
PHI 208 Week 5 Assignment Final Paper The Existence of God Final Argumentative Paper
important sub-disciplines of philosophy are addressed in this course:
ethics, epistemology, and religion. For this paper, you will develop an
argument that includes your own view on one specific topic relating to
one of these sub-disciplines. Below is a list of topics from which you
must choose. Feel free to combine topics that seem to fit with one
another. It is recommended that you choose a topic that interests you or
that you have thought about previously.
In philosophical papers,
it is always best to present both sides of the issue (remember that
there are usually more than two sides to any issue), and then to present
the side that you find the most convincing. Remember to back up your
position with logical reasoning and factual evidence. In addition, be
sure to utilize the philosophical content and ideas that you have
encountered in this course.
Identify the specific issue. Make clear
one basic dispute over this issue. Clarify the arguments on multiple
sides of the issue. Structure an argument that supports the side of the
issue you find to be better defended. Explain why you find that side of
the debate superior. State your own view, and defend it with an
argument. Provide at least two references for each side of the debate.
Utilize the philosophical theories and ideas that you have encountered
in this course as much as possible. In order to write a strong paper,
you will need to clearly and specifically present both sides of the
debate using at least five academic sources in addition to the course
text, three of which can be found in the Ashford Online Library.
Select a topic from the following sub-disciplines:
What is the most convincing ethical system? Why? Is it necessary to
have universal ethical principles? What are the fundamental principles
of ethics? What is the good life and how does one achieve it? Is ethics
natural or learned behavior? What is an ethically bad life? How do we
know? How do humans differentiate between good and bad in the realm of
ethics? Do ethical actions have value apart from the outcomes of those
actions? Are humans free or determined, and how does this perspective
relate to human responsibility?
Epistemology What can humans know
for certain and how can they justify that they actually know what they
think they know? What are the limits of human perception and cognition?
What is the relationship between scientific knowledge and other types of
knowledge? What are the limits of skepticism? What are the differences
between the mind and the brain? Is radical relativism defensible? What
is the best epistemological argument and explanation of how humans
perceive their worlds? How did human consciousness emerge and where is
Religion Is proof for the existence of God necessary?
Which argument for the existence of God is strongest? Why? What are the
foundations of the universe and from where did the universe emerge? Can
one be moral and not believe in God? Can God and real evil be
reconciled? Are science and religion in conflict? Can God’s omniscience
and human free will be reconciled? Is there a rational argument for
atheism? The paper must be six to eight pages in length, formatted
according to APA style, and include a title and a reference page (which
does not count towards the page length). Support your point with
examples from the text and at least five sources, three of which can be
found in the Ashford Online Library. For information regarding APA
samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, within the
Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.
Writing the Final Argumentative Paper
The Final Paper:
be six to eight double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according
to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a
title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name
and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Must begin with an
introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. Must
address the topic of the paper with critical thought. Must end with a
conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. Must use at least five scholarly
sources, including a minimum of three from the Ashford Online Library.
Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford
Writing Center. Must include a separate reference page, formatted
according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used
to evaluate your assignment.