Why do gyres in the southern hemisphere rotate in the opposite direction as those in the northern hemisphere?
what does the Eckman spiral show, with relation to water movement ?
where is upwelling most common ?
What signal the beginning of the el Nino episode?
Why is the Coriolis force of an influence at deeper depths of the ocean?
Explain how changes in pattern of sea-surface temperature (SST) can alter the circulation of the atmosphere ?
Why is La Nina more likely to follow a strong El Nino than a weak one?
No two El Nino events are the same. Explain the significance of this statement.
Why is global mean temperature often reported as an average?
why is large scale climate change not have the same impact everywhere?
which period of few sunspots includes the “year without a summer” ?
What is a Milankovitch cycle?
Explain how chemical analysis of tree growth rings support a linkage between variations in solar activity and climate?
Identify the various ways whereby plate tectonics may cause large-scale radiation?
how do violent volcanic eruption rich in sulfur dioxide (SO2) affect the stratospheric ozone shield?
Explain how ice-albedo feedback affects the extent of Arctic sea-ice cover.
How does having a broader record of climate help the analysis of climate change?
What is the study of tree ring growth known as?
where are pollen sediments likely to collect?
how does a speleothem form?
What is the advantage of cross-dating in climate reconstruction based on analysis of tree growth?
Why do corals respond to ENSO cycles ? How is this helpful for paleoclimate reconstructions?
What is the relationship between large-scale shifts between glacial and interglacial climate episodes and mean sea level?
How is the impact of a glacier on the landscape dependent on the sign of the glacier’s mass balance?
How quickly can current generation supercomputers process calculations?
what is the essential in constructing a model?
What does a conceptual model do?
what is a global climate model?
What is time step?
What is the benefit of performing a hindcast in numerical simulations?
Why is mathematics used so extensively in modeling experiments?
How does the PETN serve as an analog for changes we currently witness in the climate system?
Why is the issue of climate sensitivity a focus of much attention for climate modelers?