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Question # 00004604
Subject: General Questions
Due on: 12/31/2013
Posted On: 12/04/2013 12:21 PM

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21. How does culture influence motor development during infancy?

a. Cultures provide different opportunities for motor exploration in infancy.

b. Cultures differ in how babies move through the sequence of motor accomplishments from rolling over to sitting and standing.

c. Cultures differ in the role that genetics plays in guiding individual differences in motor skills.

d. Motor development is largely a matter of genetically guided pathways; culture has little impact on motor development.

22. Researchers now regard the regularities in motor behavior as the result of a dynamic process of exploration in which infants coordinate their physical actions with the demands and opportunities of the situation. What contributes to this process?

a. maturing of the central nervous system

b. opportunities for various types of movement

c. emergence of conditions to understand and anticipate actions

d. all of the these

23. The relatively stable characteristics of a child’s response to the environment including activity level, sociability, and emotionality are called __________________.

a. temperament

b. reflexes

c. attachment

d. personality

24. Although there are many definitions and explanations about the concept of temperament, theorists tend to agree about 2 points. What is one of these?

a. Theorists focus on the 3 concepts of easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm up.

b. Theorists agree that temperament is stable across the lifespan.

c. Theorists agree that a primary feature of temperament is the child’s positive or negative reaction to environmental stimuli.

d. Theorists agree that a primary feature of temperament is the recognition of causal schemes.

25. What theme related to temperament is illustrated in the case of the Cotton family?

a. Anna’s temperament was a good fit with that of her parents, which made parenting more satisfying.

b. Nancy and Paul had to make many changes in their lifestyle in order to adapt to Anna’s temperament.

c. Nancy and Paul found it impossible to soothe Anna. They had to hire help in order to find someone who could calm Anna and comfort her.

d. Anna’s difficult temperament made Nancy and Paul regret their decision to have children.

26. ___________________ is a child’s threshold for arousal, which could be evidenced at the physiological, emotional, or motor level.

a. Reactivity

b. Self-regulation

c. Coping

d. Running

27. Juanita is anxious and sings to herself to ease the feelings of fear while waiting for a doctor’s appointment. She is showing what capacities?

a. reactivity

b. coping

c. self-regulation

d self-monitoring

28. Children’s outcomes are linked with ___________.

a. children’s temperament

b. parent’s temperament

c. social experiences

d. all of the these

29. Infants who exhibit a pattern of withdrawal from unfamiliar objects, negative mood, and low level of activity are called _____.

a. difficult

b. shy

c. uninhibited

d. slow to warm up

30. The percentage of infants who do NOT clearly fit into one of the three categories of temperament is _____.

a. 10%

b. 20%

c. 35%

d. 50%

31. In the case of the Cotton family, how did the baby Anna contribute to family well-being?

a. She increased her father’s sense of competence as a caregiver.

b. She brought enjoyment to her mother.

c. She helped her grandmother cope with the bereavement of having a daughter who died.

d. All of these

32. Which of the following is the process through which people develop specific, positive, emotional bonds with others?

a. attachment

b. social referencing

c. emotional differentiation

d. categorization of social objects

33. Which term refers to positive caregiver behavioral responses to infant signals that lead to the formation of a trusting relationship?

a. self-regulation

b. socializing

c. parenting

d. social referencing

34. Which term refers to caregiver-infant interactions that are rhythmic, well-timed, and mutually rewarding?

a. synchrony

b. ethology

c. differentiation

d. behavioral system

35. Which of the following behaviors is NOT used as evidence that an attachment has been formed?

a. greater relaxation and expressions of comfort with the caregiver

b. greater fretfulness with the caregiver than with strangers

c. expressions of distress when the caregiver is absent

d. efforts by the infant to maintain contact with the caregiver

36. When infants begin to be able to modify their needs for security to include the needs and goals of their caregiver, we say they are achieving a _______.

a. disorganized attachment

b. goal-corrected partnership

c. capacity fore categorization

d. reactive temperament

37. Anthony is 4 months old. What behaviors might suggest the formation of a preference for the object of his attachment?

a. Anthony smiles more at the object of attachment than at a stranger.

b. Anthony asks to go along whenever the object of attachment goes on an errand.

c. Anthony follows the object of attachment around the house by creeping and crawling.

d. Anthony finds comfort in holding a scarf that belongs to the object of attachment.

38. At about what age do infants form an internal, mental representation of the object of attachment?

a. 9 to 12 months

b. 6 to 9 months

c. 3 to 6 months

d. birth to 3 months

39. After 6 months of age the infant may cling more to his parents in the presence of strangers. This is an example of _________.

a. fear syndrome

b. separation anxiety

c. stranger anxiety

d. negative attachment

40. Which of the following is likely to influence the way a baby reacts to an unfamiliar adult?

a. whether or not the mother works outside the home

b. the mother’s reaction to the adult

c. the adult’s height

d. the adult’s occupation

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Preview: culture xxx little xxxxxx on motor xxxxxxxxxxx , A22 xxxxxxxxxxx now xxxxxx xxx regularities xx motor behavior xx the result xx a xxxxxxx xxxxxxx of xxxxxxxxxxx in which xxxxxxx coordinate their xxxxxxxx actions xxxx xxx demands xxx opportunities of xxx situation What xxxxxxxxxxx to xxxx xxxxxxxxx maturing xx the central xxxxxxx systemb opportunities xxx various xxxxx xx movementc xxxxxxxxx of conditions xx understand and xxxxxxxxxx actionsd xxx xx the xxxxxx D23 The xxxxxxxxxx stable characteristics xx a xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx to xxx environment including xxxxxxxx level, sociability, xxx emotionality xxx xxxxxx __________________ x temperamentb reflexesc xxxxxxxxxxx personality, A24 xxxxxxxx there xxx xxxx definitions xxx explanations about xxx concept of xxxxxxxxxxxx theorists xxxx xx agree xxxxx 2 points xxxx is one xx these? x xxxxxxxxx focus xx the 3 xxxxxxxx of easy, xxxxxxxxxx and xxxxxxxxxxxx xx b xxxxxxxxx agree that xxxxxxxxxxx is stable xxxxxx the xxxxxxxx x Theorists xxxxx that a xxxxxxx feature of xxxxxxxxxxx is xxx xxxxxxxxx positive xx negative reaction xx environmental stimuli x Theorists xxxxx xxxx a.....
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