does culture influence motor development during infancy?
provide different opportunities for motor exploration in infancy.
differ in how babies move through the sequence of motor accomplishments from
rolling over to sitting and standing.
differ in the role that genetics plays in guiding individual differences in
development is largely a matter of genetically guided pathways; culture has
little impact on motor development.
now regard the regularities in motor behavior as the result of a dynamic process
of exploration in which infants coordinate their physical actions with the
demands and opportunities of the situation. What contributes to this process?
of the central nervous system
for various types of movement
of conditions to understand and anticipate actions
of the these
23. The relatively stable characteristics
of a child’s response to the environment including activity level, sociability,
and emotionality are called __________________.
24. Although there are many definitions
and explanations about the concept of temperament, theorists tend to agree
about 2 points. What is one of these?
a. Theorists focus on the 3 concepts
of easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm up.
b. Theorists agree that temperament is
stable across the lifespan.
c. Theorists agree that a primary
feature of temperament is the child’s positive or negative reaction to
d. Theorists agree that a primary
feature of temperament is the recognition of causal schemes.
25. What theme related to temperament is
illustrated in the case of the Cotton family?
a. Anna’s temperament was a good fit
with that of her parents, which made parenting more satisfying.
b. Nancy and Paul had to make many
changes in their lifestyle in order to adapt to Anna’s temperament.
c. Nancy and Paul found it impossible
to soothe Anna. They had to hire help in
order to find someone who could calm Anna and comfort her.
d. Anna’s difficult temperament made
Nancy and Paul regret their decision to have children.
26. ___________________ is a child’s
threshold for arousal, which could be evidenced at the physiological,
emotional, or motor level.
27. Juanita is anxious and sings to
herself to ease the feelings of fear while waiting for a doctor’s
appointment. She is showing what
28. Children’s outcomes are linked with
a. children’s temperament
b. parent’s temperament
c. social experiences
d. all of the these
who exhibit a pattern of withdrawal from unfamiliar objects, negative mood, and
low level of activity are called _____.
d. slow to warm up
percentage of infants who do NOT clearly fit into one of the three categories
of temperament is _____.
31. In the case of the Cotton family, how
did the baby Anna contribute to family well-being?
a. She increased her father’s sense of
competence as a caregiver.
b. She brought enjoyment to her
c. She helped her grandmother cope
with the bereavement of having a daughter who died.
d. All of these
32. Which of the following is the process
through which people develop specific, positive, emotional bonds with others?
b. social referencing
c. emotional differentiation
d. categorization of social objects
term refers to positive caregiver behavioral responses to infant signals that
lead to the formation of a trusting relationship?
34. Which term refers to caregiver-infant
interactions that are rhythmic, well-timed, and mutually rewarding?
d. behavioral system
35. Which of the following behaviors is
NOT used as evidence that an attachment has been formed?
a. greater relaxation and expressions
of comfort with the caregiver
b. greater fretfulness with the
caregiver than with strangers
c. expressions of distress when the
caregiver is absent
d. efforts by the infant to maintain
contact with the caregiver
36. When infants begin to be able to
modify their needs for security to include the needs and goals of their
caregiver, we say they are achieving a _______.
a. disorganized attachment
b. goal-corrected partnership
c. capacity fore categorization
d. reactive temperament
37. Anthony is 4 months old. What
behaviors might suggest the formation of a preference for the object of his
a. Anthony smiles more at the object
of attachment than at a stranger.
b. Anthony asks to go along whenever
the object of attachment goes on an errand.
c. Anthony follows the object of
attachment around the house by creeping and crawling.
d. Anthony finds comfort in holding a
scarf that belongs to the object of attachment.
about what age do infants form an internal, mental representation of the object
a. 9 to 12 months
b. 6 to 9 months
c. 3 to 6 months
d. birth to 3 months
39. After 6
months of age the infant may cling more to his parents in the presence of
strangers. This is an example of _________.
40. Which of the following is likely to
influence the way a baby reacts to an unfamiliar adult?
a. whether or not the mother works
outside the home
b. the mother’s reaction to the adult
c. the adult’s height
d. the adult’s occupation