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Question # 00004550
Subject: General Questions
Due on: 12/05/2013
Posted On: 12/04/2013 01:55 AM
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1. Instructions to Class: Complete the Main Conference and two responses.

1. Main Conference: Respond to the following question: How are ethnocentrism and language related? Linguist George Lakoff offers the concept of “frames” to explain the conflict between Democrats and Republicans. How does this relate to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
• When drafting your answer be sure to follow the grading rubric (below)
You are expected to
• contribute to each conference within the time frame posted
• 300-500 words
• respond to your classmates, both to advance the discussion and to deepen your understanding of the topic
• read the assigned materials in advance?these are to be informed discussions, and your postings should help further each one
• check your submissions for correct spelling and grammar
• cite all of your sources fully and accurately, including page numbers

2. Write a response to each of the following items below.

a) Ethnocentrism and language are related because language is a representation of culture and it’s possible for culture to exhibit ethnocentrism. The text states that symbolic actions all play a role in organizing and making concrete a particular view of the world. And ethnocentrism is just thinking that your particular views are correct or better when compared to other cultural views of the world. Therefore a ethnocentric culture bias to, or more so to, a particular culture should display certain linguistic attributes that exemplify those preconceptions. For example in chapter 6 it is reveled that language can be used to construct identity of others, groups from which people want to separate themselves from. Furthermore, The text points out that rivalries between Hutu and Tutsi are referred to as “tribal conflicts”, and not conflicts between Basques and Spaniards. The reference of “tribal conflicts” imposes an ethnocentric view towards these groups. Its as if their style of legislation is primitive and unsophisticated instead of judicious and vindicated.

George Lakoffs notion of frames is a slight variation of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that language shapes the way we see the world whereas, George Lakoffs states that its “frames” or mental structures that shape the way we see the world. For example, Lakoff states that conservative politics are based on a strict-father concept, and that the goal is to produce children that grow to become self-reliant. This is the “frame” to which conservative politic place around the idea of a family and that anything that doesn’t fit within that frame is wrong, e.g., same-sex marriage. Under Lakoffs thought cultural metaphors can reveal something about how speakers of a language conceptualize their world. For example sayings such as “time is money” and “war on drugs” give some insight into the Western culture. Both Lakoffs and Sapir-Whorf are ways we try to understand others along with ourselves.

b) "If you don't understand the language, how could you ever understand the practice?"
I don't completely agree with this. Sure knowing the language helps you understand certain practices, but it's not completely necessary. You can read about practices and understand them, like all the examples in the Robbins text book. The Wari cannibals, and virgin test's in Turkey, or cock fighting.
Or if someone translates or explains something to you. Like AOB/ICR class when you first arrive here. For example, It's considered very disrespectful to stick chopsticks up right in a bowl of rice, because to honor the dead here, they offer rice by sticking the chop sticks straight up in a bowl of rice. When you do this out in town at a resturaunt and the Japanese people see it, it reminds them of death, or even specific loved ones. The proper thing to do is use a chop stick holder or prop the chop sticks on the side of your plate, or lay them across the bowl. I don't speak the language and I both understand and respect this custom.
Yes, I think understanding the language and physically speaking to the person who practices it is probably the most reliable sorce, but it's not the only sorce. I mean isn't that what Anthropology is all about? Anthropogogists study a people or culture group and write about. Other's read about it to get a better understanding of the culture.
That being said, there is a difference between understanding a practice and actually participating or accepting that practice as ok. I think when condoning or condeming a certain practice is where language, culture, and ethonocentrism comes in to play, but you don't necessarily have to understand the language in order to understand the practice.















Students are expected to
• contribute to each conference within the time frame posted
• respond to your classmates, both to advance the discussion and to deepen your understanding of the topic
• read the assigned materials in advance?these are to be informed discussions, and your postings should help further each one
• check your submissions for correct spelling and grammar
• cite all of your sources fully and accurately, including page numbers
Your participation grade will cover both your original posting and your responses to at least two classmates' postings.
Conferences will be graded as follows:
Original Response
Dimension Good
A and B Level Posts
100-80 points Acceptable
C Level Posts
70-79 points Unacceptable
D and F Level Posts
60-0 points
Content
Contribution Posts information that is factually correct; shows full development of concept or thought. Repeats but does not add substantive information to the discussion. Posts information that is off-topic, incorrect, or irrelevant to discussion.
References & Support Incorporates references from course material as well as personal experience Uses personal experience, but no references to readings or research. Includes no references or supporting experience.
Classmate Replies
Dimension Good
A and B Level Posts
100-80 points Acceptable
C Level Posts
70-79 points Unacceptable
D and F Level Posts
60-0 points
Follow-Up Postings Elaborates on an existing posting with further comment or observation. Posts shallow contribution to discussion (e.g., agrees or disagrees); does not enrich discussion. Posts no follow-up responses to others.
Content
Contribution Posts information that is factually correct; shows full development of concept or thought. Repeats but does not add substantive information to the discussion. Posts information that is off-topic, incorrect, or irrelevant to discussion.
References & Support Incorporates references from course material as well as personal experience Uses personal experience, but no references to readings or research. Includes no references or supporting experience.


Examples:
Sample A-Level Original Response:
Discussion Question:Module 3, Commentary 4 discusses how “stratified societies institutionalize inequality”. Although many of the social classes that once existed in Japan (for example, “warriors” and “townspeople”) are no longer recognized, the Burakumin continue to be discriminated against. Furthermore, those perceived to be non-Japanese (for example, Debito Arudou) are also discriminated against. Like the United States, inequality and social stratification are prevalent in Japan.
In light of the class material, why do you think humans are so eager to classify one another in ways that promote inequalities? Provide specific examples from the course material to support your position.

Student Original Response:In stratified societies people are organized by social class. Humans tend to create these separations to create a hierarchy. In many societies this is done to create order but in others, as in the example from the Module explains, this can be done to enforce control For example, according to the Module, “Mundurucu men use force to control their women, as do men in many other societies today.
In the United States the greatest division is in socioeconomic status. We are divided into upper, middle and lower class. Access to education in lower classes is more difficult than in other classes. Schools in less affluent areas are not as productive and, if you have the resources, those in higher classes can pay to send their children to better schools, which maintains this division.
The module provided a “Think about it” question regarding Warren Buffet. Buffet said that, upon his death, his billions will be donated to charity rather than given to his children because they “already had more advantages than 99.9 percent of the people in the world. This is a good example of the inherent advantages of socioeconomic status in U.S. culture.
There is also division within races. I grew up in a majority African American area and there was a division between light skinned and dark skinned. The lighter you were the more likely you were to receive advantages. In Spike Lee’s movie “School Daze” this was a major theme. The dark skinned women were called Jigaboos, a derogatory term.
Thinking about the reading, I think the reason humans are so eager to classify one another in ways that promote inequality is because people want to protect their (real or imagined) resources and status. Warren Buffet is an exception to this in that he does not plan on leaving his wealth to his children. African Americans who divide themselves based on skin color see lighter skin coinciding with those who generally control the wealth and resources in society (white people) and therefore are attempting to align themselves with that group.
Feedback: This post would receive a grade of 93 points. It is well-written and well-thought out. It incorporates the course material and demonstrates an understanding of the Module. It could be an even stronger post if more specific examples from the course material were included and if some of the other statements, for example, the statement about light-skinned and dark-skinned African Americans, were supported by either the course material or other academic sources.
Sample A-Level Classmate Reply:
Student Classmate Reply: To your point about Barack Obama, I think there are several factors that led to his name being a controversy but it, in my opinion, all boils down to the fact that he is different-he has a funny name, he spent part of his childhood overseas and, more importantly, he did not let what others thought of him define what he thought of himself and what he believed he could accomplish. As he said several times throughout his campaign - no where on Earth is his story even possible.
As the current Module has shown, differences are often not embraced and the person/people who are different are made to feel bad for being different. This often has to do with access to resources. One possible reason for the controversy surrounding Barack Obama could be that he does not fit into the stereotype of those who have traditionally controlled the wealth and power in this country. This is similar to the post [name] made about light-skinned African Americans discriminating against dark-skinned African Americans.
I think that because the world we live in is truly global and we begin to see and learn more of other people, cultures and their differences we will all begin to embrace these differences and learn from them rather than persecuting others because they are not like us.
Feedback: This is a very good post and would receive a grade of 90 points. This post demonstrates an analysis of both the course material as well as the classmate's reply. It also demonstrates critical thinking and advances the conversation. It would be a stronger post if more specific examples from the course material were incorporated. Reference is made to the current Module but, what aspects of the current Module support the statements made?

What makes these A-level responses?
Incorporate the course material: the students express thoughts and opinions in light of the course material. They incorporate what has been learned in the Module into their answers to support their statements.

Demonstrate analysis and critical thinking skills: the students demonstrate that they thought critically about the main discussion question as well as their classmates' replies and offer an analysis by expanding on their statements which are supported by information from their own personal experience and the course material.


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Preview: certain xxxxxx can xxxxxx the people xx that culture xxxxxxxx its xxxxxxxx xx understand xxx practice without xxxxxxxxxxxxx a language xx a xxxxxxx xxxxxx This xxx be done xx reading on xxx different xxxxxxxxx xxxx prevail xx different culture xxxxxx a translator xxxxx with xxx xxxx helps xxxx take an xxxxxxx of the xxxxxxxx culture xxx xxxxxxxxxx disrespect xx someone place xxx chopsticks right xx a xxxx xx rice xxx practice of xxxxxxxx rice by xxxxxxxx it xx xxxxx in xxx bowl is xxxxxxxxx to honor xxx dead xx xxxxxxx does xxxx sitting inside x restaurant and xxx Japanese xxxxxx xxx it, xx reminds them xx death, or xxxx specific xxxxx xxxx But xx I understand xxxxx culture or xxxx read xxxxx xxx then xx going to xxxxx doing it xx such, x xxxx speak xxx.....
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