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umuc bio 301 patient scenario

Question # 00389521
Subject: Biology
Due on: 09/19/2016
Posted On: 09/18/2016 04:21 PM

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Use knowledge of biological principles and the Scientific Method to ask and answer relevant questions about human health and disease

Analyze information to distinguish between diseased and healthy structure and functioning.

Analyze how internal and external factors cause disruption of healthy body function, leading to disease and disorders.

Mr. Smith is 60 years old. He was diagnosed with a prostate cancer five years ago. Over the past few days, Mr. Smith has been feeling weak and increasingly tired and has also been suffering from a headache that did not respond to over-the-counter medications. He scheduled an appointment with his physician.

His physician performed a physical examination and recommended a battery of laboratory tests and imaging procedures.

The table below shows Reference values in the right-hand column. These values reflect the normal range of values for patients without disease or illness. The center column reflects the resulting values for medical test results obtained for Mr. Smith.

Take note whether Mr. Smith’s values are within normal limits.

Mr. Smith

Reference Values

K+

2.6 mmol/L

3.8-4.9mmol/L

Hb (Hemoglobin)

7.5 g/dL

13.8 to 18.2 g/dL

Hct (Hematocrit)

20.4%

45-52%

Platelet Count

49x109/L

150-400x109/L

After receiving Mr. Smith’s test results, his physician admits him to the hospital. Hospital staff treated him and discharged him.

The following week, Mr. Smith returns to his physician with the same complaint of weakness and a new complaint of shortness of breath. His blood pressure is 160/100 mmHg. MRI reveals metastasis of prostate cancer to osseous tissue. Abdominal CT shows obstruction of intestine due to nodular enlargement of adrenal glands.

Laboratory results from Mr. Smith’s second hospital admission and medical tests show following findings:

Mr. Smith

Reference Values

K+

2.6 mmol/L

3.8-4.9mmol/L

Hb

7.3 g/dl

13.8 to 18.2 g/dL

Hct

20.4%

45-52%

Platelet Count

20x109/L

150-400x109/L

HCO3

38 mmol/l

22-26 mmol/L

Urinary K+

70 mmol/L/24 hr

25-120 mmol/L/24 hr

Blood Glucose

460 mg/dl

64.8-104.4 mg/dL

Serum Aldosterone

1 ng/dl

24 hour Urinary Aldosterone

8.4 mcg/24 hr

2.3-21.0 mcg/24 hr

Renin

2.1 ng/ml/hr

0.65-5.0 ng/ml/hr

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)

1082 pg/ml

9-46 pg/ml

Cortisol

155.5 microg/dL

0-25 microg/dL

CONCLUSION AND DIAGNOSIS

Laboratory findings, MRI and CT confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, hypertension and refractory hypokalemia due to ectopic ACTH production. High levels of circulating cortisol caused continuous activation of mineralocorticoid receptors resulting in hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypertension.

After reading provided scenario, answer the following questions:

1. What are the components of physical examination? Describe each component. (See Module 1, Commentary, Topic 8. Disease Categories, Part B. Steps in Diagnosis)

2. Mr. Smith’s blood pressure was 160/100 mmHg. How does a medical provider take or measure blood pressure? What do the top (numerator) and bottom (denominator) numbers mean in the biological sense? What is the significance the size of these two numbers? Is Mr. Smith’s blood pressure within normal range? Explain how you concluded whether Mr. Smith’s blood pressure is/is not within normal range.

3. Based on the data provided, what laboratory tests were performed and what samples were taken from the patient? Select one of the laboratory tests ordered for Mr. Smith and discuss why Mr. Smith’s physician might have ordered the test and the information she might have expected to obtain from that particular test.

4. Compare Mr. Smith’s values with reference values and indicate whether MR. Smith’s values are below, above, or within normal range (compare Mr. Smith’s values with the Reference values) for each laboratory tests in the table above from the second set of tests.

5. What imaging procedures did Mr. Smith undergo? Discuss the distinctions and similarities between the two different imaging approaches. What were the results of imaging procedures in Mr. Smith’s case?

6. Select one of the medical terms from the CONCLUSION and DIAGNOSIS section above and define what it means. Also, discuss, in your own words and based on what you can gather about Mr. Smith’s condition, how the laboratory or imaging tests helped with drawing a conclusion or making the diagnosis. In your own words, discuss how medical providers use the scientific method to come to work through the examination and diagnosis of a patient.

You should write a short paper addressing all six questions and submit it into the assignment folder. Your grade will depend upon the content, clarity and originality of responses written in your own words. Good writing practices, including the use of correct grammar, sentence and paragraph structure, and punctuation, and presence of logical reasoning, will account for a portion of your grade.

Cite all sources in APA format within your answer text as well as full citations in APA format at the end of the assignment.

Tags scenario patient umuc values smiths smith tests laboratory blood reference physician diagnosis medical normal imaging preure mmoll results disease test range discu following examination procedures hospital prostate answer conclusion words questions numbers

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Preview: gland xxxx assists xxx kidney control xxxx and potassium xxxxxxx CITATION xxxxx xx 1033 xxxxxxxxxx 2016)A higher xxxx normal level xx aldosterone xxx xx due xxx Abuse of xxxxxxxxxx Liver cirrhosis, xxxxxxx gland xxxxxxxxx xxxxx and xxxxxxxx abuse Lower xxxx normal levels xx aldosterone xxx xxxxxxxx Addison xxxxxxx 4 Compare xx Smith’s values xxxx reference xxxxxx xxx indicate xxxxxxx MR Smith’s xxxxxx are below, xxxxxx or xxxxxx xxxxxx range xxxxxxxx Mr Smith’s xxxxxx with the xxxxxxxxx values) xxx xxxx laboratory xxxxx in the xxxxx above from xxx second xxx xx tests xxxxx set of xxxx second set xx testsK+ xx xxxxxx normal xxxxx K + xx within normal xxxxx Hb xx xxxxxx normal xxxxx Hb is xxxxxx normal range xxx is xxxxxx xxxxxx range xxx is within xxxxxx range Platelet xxxxx is xxxxxx xxxxxx HCO3 xx above range xxxxxxx K+ is xxxxxx normal xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx level xx above range xxxxxxx urinary Aldosterone xx within xxxxxx xxxxx Renin xx within normal xxxxx Adrenocorticotropic hormone xx above xxxxx xxxxxxxx is xxxxx range 5 x What imaging xxxxxxxxxx did xx xxxxx undergo?Magnetic xxxxxxxxx imaging (MRI) xxx Computed Tomography xxxx ii xxxxxxx xxx distinctions xxx similarities between xxx two different xxxxxxx approaches x xxxxxxxx resonance xxxxxxx (MRI)Magnetic resonance xxxxxxx (MRI) is x type xx xxxx which xxxx strong magnetic xxxxxx and radio xxxxx to xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx images xx the inside xx the body xx MRI xxxxxxx xx characterized xx a large xxxx that contains xxxxxxxx magnets xxx xxx inside xxx tube during xxx scan CITATION xxxxxx \l xxxx xxxxxxx Magnetic xxxxxxxxx Imaging , xxxxxxx MRI scan xxx be xxxx xxxxxxxxxxx almost xxx part of xxx body, including xxxxxxxxxx spinal xxxx xxxxx and xxxxx vessels internal xxxxxxx such as xxx liver, xxxx xx prostate xxxxxxx The final xxxxxxx of an xxx scan xxx xx used xx assist to xxxxxxxx conditions, plan xxxxxxxxxx and xxxxxx xxx effectiveness xx the previous xxxxxxxxx During an xxx scan, xxx xxx on x flatbed that is moved xxxx the scanner xxxxxxxxx which xxxx xx your xxxx being scanned, xxx patient will xx moved xxxx xxx scanner xxxxxx head first xx otherwise feet xxxxx The xxx xxxxxxx is xxxxxxx operated by a xxxxxxxxxxxxx who is highly xxxxxxx in xxxxxxxx xxx imaging xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Their role xx control the xxxxxxx using x xxxxxxxxx which xx usually in x different room xxxxx serves xx xxxx it xxxx from the xxxxxxxx field generated xx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx usually xxxxx for 15 xx 90 minutes, xxxxxxxxx on xxx xxxx of xxx area being xxxxxxx and the xxxxxx of xxxxxx xxx taken x Computed Tomography xxxx Scan of xxx Body x xxxxxxxx tomography xxxx scan uses xxxxxx to produce xxxxxxxx pictures xx xxxxxxxxxx inside xx the body xxxxxx the test, xxx patient xxxx xx a xxxxx that is xxxxxxxx to.....
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