Lesson 8

1. The chief aim of sampling is to be able to select

a.
simple random samples

b.
a sample whose statistics will accurately portray an unknown
population parameter

c.
a ample whose parameters will accurately portray an unknown
population statistic

d.
a sample whose statistics will accurately portray a known
population parameter

e.
a sample whose unknown statistics will accurately portray a
know parameter

2. A study population is

a.
the theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of all elements
as defined for a given survey

b.
the theoretically specified aggregation of survey elements

c.
that aggregation of elements from which the sample is
actually selected

d.
that aggregation or set of elements considered for selection
in some stage of sampling

e.
that aggregation of elements from which information is
collected

3. The unit about which
information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis is called a(n)

a.
universe

b.
sampling unit

c.
statistic

d.
sampling frame

e.
element

4. In a situation of
perfect homogeneity there is little need to be concerned with careful sampling
procedures.

a.
Ture

b.
False

5. The size of the
population must be taken into account when deciding on sample size.

a.
True

b.
False

6. Non probability sampling

a.
always produces samples that possess distorted
characteristics relative to the population

b.
denies the researche the use of statistical theory to
estimate the probability of correct inferences

c.
should never be used under any circumstances

d.
includes stratified sampling

e.
requires the use of sampling frames

7. Sample all the students
in your research methods class. What kind of sampling design are you using?

a.
simple random sampling

b.
quota sampling

c.
cluster sampling

d.
stratified sampling

e.
reliance on available subjects

8. Drawing a judgemental
sample

a.
allows researchers to use their prior knowledge about the
topic.

b.
Enlists the aid of uninformed respondents

c.
Results in a sample that has no researcher bias

d.
Ensures a representative sample.

e.
Requires the development of a quota matrix

9. If a field researcher
wanted to learn a political organizationâ€™s pattern of recruitment over time,
the researcher might begin by interviewing a fairly recent recruit and ask who
introdused that person to the organization. Then the researcher might interview
the person named and ask who introduced that person to the political
organization. This would be an example of

a.
snowball sampling.

b.
Systematic sampling

c.
Deviant cases sampling

d.
Accidental sampling

e.
Quota samplingâ€™

10. Professor Hall was
planning to do a field study of hitchhikers. Hall wanted to be sure that
persons representing all different age, racial, and sex categories were
included in the sample of hitchhikers. What kind of sampling scheme would you
recommend?

a.
deviant cases.

b.
Quota sampling

c.
Stratified sampling

d.
Snowball sampling

e.
Cluter sampling

11. A researcher discovers
that in a particular city 10% of the households are headed by a single person
and that 90% of the families are husband-wife families. The researcher sends
out interviewers an tells them to conduct 80 interviews and that 10% of these
interviews should be with families that are headed by a single person, and 90%
should be with husband-wife families. This researcher is using

a.
simple random sampling

b.
quota sampling

c.
cluster sampling

d.
stratified sampling

e.
accidental sampling

12. In general, as sample
size increases

a.
the standard error increases in size

b.
the standard error decreases in size

c.
the standard error will remain the same regardless of changes
in sample size

d.
the standard error is a constant

e.
the standard error fluctuates in size

13. Sampling error is
reduced through an increase in the sample size and an increased homogeneity of
the elements being sampled.

a.
True

b.
False

14. Probability samples are
advantageous to the researcher because

a.
the method by which they are selected limits consious and
unconscious sampling bias

b.
the accuracy or representativeness of the sample can be
estimated

c.
they are perfectly representative of the population from
which they are drawn

d.
all of these choices indicate the advantages of probability sampling

e.
the method by which they are selected limits conscious and
unconscious sampling bias and the accuracy or representativenes of the sample
can be estimated

15. A summary description
of a given variable in a survey sample is called a

a.
variable

b.
parameter

c.
confidence level

d.
confidence interval

e.
statistic

16. If two samples of the
same size are drawn from the same population using simple random sampling, it
follows that they will have the same statistics.

a.
True

b.
False

17. Generally, the more
heterogeneous the population, the more beneficial it is to use stratified
sampling.

a.
True

b.
False

18. Stratification
represnets a modification to rather than an alternative to simple random
sampling and systematic sampling.

a.
True

b.
False

19. A stratified sample is
more likely to be representative on several variables than is a simple random
sample.

a.
True

b.
False

20. You want to select a
sample of 250 people from a population of 30,000. To use the table of random
numbers you need to work with a

a.
250 digit number

b.
3- digit number

c.
4- digit number

d.
5- digit number

e.
6- digit number

21. A sampling interval of
5 was used to select a sample from a population of 1000. How many elements are
to be in the sample?

a.
5

b.
50

c.
100

d.
200

e.
1000

22. Every kth element in a
list is chosen for inclusion in the sample in

a.
simple random sampling

b.
systematic sampling

c.
disproportionate sampling

d.
cluster sampling

e.
stratified sampling

23. Periodicity is
particularly important in

a.
Simple random sampling

b.
Availability sampling

c.
Stratified sampling

d.
Quota sampling

e.
Systematic sampling

24. You are doing research
on hospital personnel-orderlies, technicians, nurses, and doctors. You want to
be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories.
You want to use probability sampling/ An appropriate strategy would be

a.
simple random sampling

b.
quota sampling

c.
cluster sampling

d.
stratified sampling

e.
accidental sampling

25. Stratifying a
population prior to drawing a sample

a.
generally occurs when the variables used to stratify are
known to be associated with the dependent variable

b.
eliminates the need for simple random sampling

c.
is most useful for studying
a homogeneous population

d.
eliminates the need for probabiity sampling

e.
is an alternative systematic sampling

26. A disadvantage of
stratified sampling is that it

a.
denies you the use of probability theory

b.
requires you to have some prior knowledge about the elements
in the population prior to drawing the sample

c.
usually increases the standard error

d.
usually requires samples that are larger in size than those
required by simple random sampling

e.
none of these choices is a disadvantage of stratified
sampling

27. Multistage sampling
design tend to have smaller sampling errors than single-stage sampling
designs..

a.
True

b.
False

28. To ensure a sufficient
number of cases from strta of varying sizes, researchers use.

a.
simple random sampling

b.
systematic sampling

c.
proportionate sampling

d.
disproportionate sampling

e.
quota sampling

29. Disproportionate
sampling and weighting are used by the researcher

a.
to ensure a sufficient number of cases in each of the sample
subpopulations

b.
to give a proportionate representation to each sample element

c.
to procide a representative picture of the total population

d.
to handle situations involving the errors and approximation
that are often inherent in complex, multistage designs

e.
all of these choices are correct

30. Professor Alec O.
Howlick is studying the incoming (freshmen) student drinking behavior at
Boozemen State University in Boozemen, Kansas. Every incoming freshmen is
required to have a university email address. After obtaining a list of all
incoming freshmen students email addresses, he numbered every email address
from 1 to 4,000. Using a random-number table, he obtained a sample of 200
freshman email addresses. He then emailed students requesting them to take an
online survey. He also had two follow-up email reminders. A total of 180
students took the online survey.

(1) What is Howlick's
sampling frame?

a. the drinking behavior of students

b. incoming freshmen telephone numbers

c. student freshmen email addresses

d. Boozemen State University

(Page Ref: 225)

(2) What is Drunkman's
population?

a. all students living in Boozemen, Kansas

b. all students enrolled in Boozemen State University

c. students who drink alcohol in Boozemen, Kansas

d. all incoming freshmen at Boozemen State University

(Page Ref: 224)

(3) What type of sampling
did Professor Howlick use?

a. stratified random sample

b. simple random sample

c. cluster sample

d. sequential sample

(Page Ref: 227)

Lesson 9

1. An experiment examines the effect of the

a.
dependent variable on the independent variable

b.
posttest on the pretest

c.
cotrol group on the experimental group

d.
independent variable on the dependent variable

e.
independent variable on the stimulus

2. The experimental and control groups should be
comparable on

a.
variables that are likely to be related to the independent
variable under study

b.
variables that are likely to be related to the dependent
variable under study

c.
age, education, and ethnicity

d.
all demographic variables

e.
all of these choices

3. Experiments are
especially appropriate for research projects involving all of the following
EXCEPT

a.
small-group interaction

b.
hypothesis testing

c.
the testing of relatively limited and well-defined concepts
and propositions

d.
descriptive research

e.
explanatory research

4. Among the requirements
for the classical experimental design is a posttest measurement of the

a.
dependent variable for both the experimental and control
groups

b.
independent variable for both the experimental and control
groups

c.
independent variable for the control group only

d.
dependent variable for the experimental group only

e.
independent variable for the experimental group only

5. The double blind
experiment attempts to guard agains experimenter bias

a.
True

b.
False

6. The double-blind
experiment is one in which

a.
the experimenters do not know which is the experimental group
and which is the control group

b.
the experimental subjects do not know that they are in the
experimental group, and the control group subjects know that they are in the
control group

c.
neither the subjects in the experimental or control groups
not the experimenters know which are the experimental and control groups

d.
the control group subjects do not know that they are in the
control group, and the experimental group subjects know that they are in the
experimental group

e.
the experimental and control groups are given placebos

7. In a natural experiment,
the researcher does NOT manipulate the independent variable.

a.
True

b.
False

8. The Solomon four-group
design

a.
combines the classical experimental design with the
posttest-only control group design

b.
combines the classical experimental design with the
pretest-only control group design

c.
combines the classical experimental design with the
static-group comparison design

d.
combines the static-group comparison design with the
one-group pretest-posttest design

e.
none of these choices are correct

9. The difference between
the experimental and control group should be:

a.
the experimental group receives the dependent variable and
the control group does not

b.
the experimental group receives the independent variable and
the control group does not

c.
the control group receives the dependent variable and the
experimental groups does not

d.
the control group receives the independent variable and the
experimental group does not

e.
nothing since both receive the independent variable

10. The question of
internal validity refers to

a.
the comparison of the results obtained for the experimental
group with those obtained for the control group

b.
whether the experimental stimulus really affected the
dependent variable

c.
the determination of the proper time to do the posttest

d.
the determination of the proper time to do the pretest

11. The problem of external
validity refers to the generalizability of results

a.
True

b.
False

12.Yolanda
wanted to test the effectiveness of a new 4-hour anger management treatment
session. She first took 24 clients who had been referred for anger management
(pre-test) in March and divided them randomly into two groups. One group was
assigned to the new 4-hour session, the other group went to a traditional anger
management session. Each was given an in-take assessment measuring anger
management skills. After clients finished the two-week sessions, she measured
the level of anger management skills among all clients in both groups. What
experimental design did she use?

a. classical experiment

b. one-shot case study

c. time series

d. static group comparison

(Page Ref: 254-255)

13. Dr. Henrietta Bootsma designed and produced a 30 second radio commercial
for a local automobile dealer. Next, she had the three most widely listened to
radio stations in town play the commercial 15 times a day, everyday, for two
weeks. She waited until the end of the two-week period, then she called Jack to
see what his sales had been lately. What experimental design did she use?

a. classical experiment

b. one-shot case study

c. time series

d. static group comparison

(Page Ref: 255)

14. It has been discovered that researchers will often unknowingly treat
the experimental group differently then the control group. To minimize this
threat to internal validity, research will often direct research assistants
(who don't know who is in the experimental and control groups) to administer
the experimental treatment. This is often called:

a. double-blind experiment

b. double-barreled experiment

c. triple-shop post-test only experiment

d. classical experimental design

(Page Ref: 264)