1. In analysis of variance, the term factor refers to:

a. Dependent variable

b. Independent (or quasi-independent) variable

c. Treatment mean

d. Treatment total

2. When comparing more than two treatment means, why should you use an analysis of variance instead of using several t tests?

a. Using several t tests increases the risk of a Type I error

b. Using several t tests increases the risk of a Type II error

c. The analysis of variance is more likely to detect a treatment effect

d. There is no advantage to using an analysis of f variance instead of several t tests

3. If the null hypothesis is true and there is no treatment effect, what value is expected on average for the F-ratio?

a. 0

b. 1.00

c. k – 1

d. N – k

4. For an F-ratio with df = 2, 10, the critical value for a hypothesis test using a = .05 would be:

a. 4.10

b. 7.56

c. 19.39

d. 99.40

5. In analysis of variance, the magnitude of the sample variances will contribute to:

a. The numerator of the F-ratio

b. The denominator of the F-ratio

c. Both the numerator and the denominator of the F-ratio

d. The sample variances do not influence the F-ratio

6. In an analysis of variance, which of the following is directly influenced by the size of the sample variances?

a. SSbetween

b. SSwithin

c. SStotal

d. All three SS values are influenced

7. An analysis of variance is used to evaluate the mean differences for a research study comparing 3 treatments with a separate sample of n = 6 in each treatment. If the data produce an F-ratio of F = 4.10, then which of the following is the correct statistical decision?

a. Reject the null hypothesis with a = .05 but not with a = .01

b. Reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a = .01

c. Fail to reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a = .01

d. There is not enough information to make a statistical decision.

8. A researcher obtains an F-ratio with df = 2, 36 from an independent-measures research study. What is the total number of individuals who participated in this study?

a. 3

b. 37

c. 39

d. 40

9. An analysis of variance produces SSwithin = 40 and SStotal = 70. In this analysis, what is the value of SSbetween?

a. 30

b. 40

c. 110

d. Cannot be determined without additional information

10. In an independent-measures experiment with 3 treatment conditions, all 3 treatments have the same mean, M1 = M2 = M3. For these data, what is SSbetween?

a. 0

b. 1.00

c. 3 (5.50)

d. Cannot be determined from the information given

11. An F-ratio near 1.00 is an indication that there are no significant treatment effects.

a. True

b. False

12. The critical region for the F-ratio from an analysis of variance is located entirely in one tail of the distribution.

a. True

b. False

13. It is impossible to obtain a negative value for an F-ratio.

a. True

b. False

14. Under what circumstances are post (hoc) tests necessary?

a. When you reject the null hypothesis with exactly 2 treatment conditions.

b. When you reject the null hypothesis with more than 2 treatment conditions.

c. When you fail to reject the null hypothesis with exactly 2 treatment conditions.

d. When you fail to reject the null hypothesis with more than 2 treatment conditions.

15. Post (hoc) tests are used to determine how much difference there is between treatment conditions.

a. True

b. False

16. Which of the following is an important advantage of a repeated-measures study?

a. A different sample of subjects serves in each treatment making it possible to compare different populations.

b. Individual differences do not contribute to the analysis, thereby reducing unsystematic and unpredicted error.

c. A larger number of subjects generally is required, which provides a better glimpse of the population.

d. All of the options are advantages.

17. For a repeated-measures ANOVA, why aren’t individual differences a source of variability for the numerator of the F-ratio?

a. They are measured and subtracted out.

b. The same individuals participate in all of the treatment conditions.

c. The individual differences are canceled out by the individual differences in the denominator.

d. Individual difference are a source of variability in the numerator.

18. The analysis of total variability into between-treatments and within-treatments variability is the same for a repeated-measures ANOVA and an independent-measures ANOVA.

a. True

b. False

19. In the second stage of analysis for the repeated-measures ANOVA, individual differences are removed from the denominator of the F-ratio.

a. True

b. False

20. The first stage of a repeated-measures ANOVA is identical to the analysis in an independent-measures ANOVA.

a. True

b. False

21. A repeated-measures analysis of variance for a study comparing three treatments with a sample of n = 8 participants produces an F-ratio of F = 6.60. For this result, which of the following is the correct statistical decision?

a. Reject the null hypothesis with a = .05 but not with a = .01

c. Reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a = .01

d. Fail to rejec