Question
Offered Price $10.00

Many European writers have been discussed in Module 2

Question # 00115219
Subject: Literary Studies
Due on: 11/08/2015
Posted On: 10/09/2015 08:26 PM

Rating:
4.1/5
Expert tutors with experiences and qualities
Posted By
Best Tutors for school students, college students
Questions:
113639
Tutorials:
113886
Feedback Score:

Purchase it
Report this Question as Inappropriate
Question
Many European writers have been discussed in Module 2 and each portrayed America from a personal perspective. What are the dominant themes of these Eurocentric portrayals? In an expository essay of at least 500 words, present your view and support it with specific quotations from the texts.

Unit 2

EXPLORING BORDERLANDS
Contact and Conflict in North America

Authors and Works

Overview Questions

Featured in the Video:
Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain (history, exploration narrative)
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, The Relation of Álvar
Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (exploration narrative,
captivity narrative, hagiography)
Americo Paredes, George Washington Gomez
(novel), With a Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad
and Its Hero (cultural criticism, music history)
Gloria Anzaldúa, La Frontera/Borderlands: The New
Mestiza (memoir, poetry, cultural criticism, political theory)

I What is a mestizo/a? How has mestizo/a identity and consciousness altered and developed over
the past four centuries?
I What kinds of relationships did European
explorers and colonizers have with the Native
Americans they encountered in the New World?
What stereotypes and conventions did they rely on
to represent Indians in their narratives?
I How did European colonizers use their narratives to mediate their relationships with authorities back in Europe?
I How do writings that originated in South
America, Mexico, the West Indies, and Canada fit
into the American canon? Why have writings in
Spanish, Dutch, and French been absent from the
canon for so long? What responsibilities do we
have as readers when we read these works in
translation?
I How do concepts of writing and literacy differ
among cultures? How did these differences shape
the colonial experience?
I How does bilingualism affect mestizo/a narratives?
I What characterizes a “borderland” or “contact
zone”? What boundaries are challenged in a border region? How have conceptions of borderlands
and contact zones changed over time?
I What differentiates assimilation, acculturation, and transculturation? Which of these terms
seems most appropriate for the colonial experiences described in the texts for this unit?
I How did the Spanish, French, Dutch, and
English approaches to colonizing the New World
differ? How did those differences affect European–
Native American relationships in different regions
of the Americas? How did differences among
native cultures in Mesoamerica, Florida, Virginia,

Discussed in This Unit:
Christopher Columbus, letters
Bartolomé de las Casas, The Very Brief Relation of
the Devastation of the Indies (history, protest literature)
Garcilaso de la Vega, The Florida of the Inca (history, folklore)
Samuel de Champlain, The Voyages of Sieur de
Champlain, The Voyages and Discoveries (histories, exploration narratives)
John Smith, The General History of Virginia, New
England, and the Summer Isles (history, captivity
narrative, exploration narrative), A Description
of New England (exploration narrative, promotional tract), New England’s Trials (history, exploration narrative)
Adriaen Van der Donck, A Description of New
Netherland (promotional tract)

2

U N I T

2 ,

E X P LO R I N G

B O R D E R L A N D S

the Middle Atlantic, and New France affect contact
between Native Americans and colonizers?
I How did the first European explorers envision
the New World? How did their preconceptions
affect their experiences in the Americas?
I Why do early narratives of the New World so
frequently invoke the language of wonder? What
narrative strategies did explorers and colonizers
use to describe their experience of wonder?
I Most of the texts discussed in Unit 2 can be
characterized as belonging to more than one
genre. Why do texts that represent border and contact experiences so often combine different genres?
What is the effect of this genre blurring?
I How are early mestizo texts influenced by the
oral tradition and pre-Conquest literary styles?
I What kinds of images of America did the
European writers featured in Unit 2 construct to
promote colonization and settlement? What kinds
of natural resources and environmental factors did
they extol in their accounts of the New World?
I How did European writers justify taking over
Native American lands and resources?
I How are Native American women characterized in colonizers’ and mestizos’ narratives? What
archetypes and legends have developed about relationships between native women and European
colonizers?

Learning Objectives
After students have viewed the video, read the
headnotes and literary selections in The Norton
Anthology of American Literature, and explored
related archival materials on the American
Passages Web site, they should be able to
1. explain the commercial, political, and religious
structures and goals that underwrote European
colonial ventures in the New World;
2. discuss the effects European colonization had
on Native American populations in North and
South America;
3. describe the differences among the Spanish,
English, French, and Dutch models of colonization;
4. discuss the formation of mestizo/a identity and

its development in America since the sixteenth
century;
5. identify primary differences among Native
American cultures in Mesoamerica, Florida,
Virginia, and New France and describe the hallmarks of their pre-Conquest literary traditions.

Instructor Overview
After the Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de
Vaca was shipwrecked and stranded in the presentday southwestern United States, he spent years living among Native American groups while seeking
out his own countrymen. When he finally encountered a group of Spaniards, he was surprised to
realize that they did not seem to recognize him as
European: “They were dumbfounded at the sight
of me, strangely undressed and in company with
Indians. They just stood staring for a long time, not
thinking to hail me or come closer.” At the same
time, he found that his Indian companions refused
to believe that he was of the same race as the
“Christian slavers,” or Spanish colonists, whom
they associated with exploitation, cruelty, and
enslavement. Somehow, in the process of living
among the Indians and mixing their culture with
his own European customs, Cabeza de Vaca had
created a hybrid identity for himself that was neither wholly Indian nor wholly European. His
unique experience was a product of the complex
culture of the “contact zone,” which scholar Mary
Louise Pratt has characterized as an “interactive”
and “improvisational” space where groups geographically and historically separated from one
another come into contact and establish relationships. As Cabeza de Vaca’s experience makes clear,
contact and conquest were not one-way experiences in which Europeans simply imposed their
will on passive Native Americans. Instead, contact
is always characterized by intersecting practices
and perspectives, even if power relations are often
unequal. As diverse groups of Europeans explored,
settled, and exploited the New World of North and
South America in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, they came into contact with
diverse groups of Native Americans, creating
contact zones from present-day Canada to the

U N I T

7 ,

I N A T R U Y T A N D O FVREEREVDI O W
S L S V E R C O R
E M

3

Caribbean. The dynamic, fluid cultures that arose
out of the contact zones were marked by antagonism and violence as competing groups struggled
for power. These contact zones could, however,
also give rise to vibrant new traditions forged out
of cooperation and innovation.
Unit 2, “Exploring Borderlands: Contact and
Conflict in North America,” examines the contact
zones and colonial experiences of European
explorers and the Native Americans they encountered. The unit also pays special attention to the
way the contact zone between present-day Mexico
and the southwestern United States evolved into a
hybrid border region that continues to be influenced by the legacies of the different groups who
first struggled there for dominance in the sixteenth
century. After hundreds of years of war, intermarriage, trade, slavery, and religious struggles, a
complex, syncretic culture has flourished in the
space that marks the current U.S./Mexico border.
As conquerors and conquered merged, a new mestizo identity (a blending of Indian, European, and
African heritage) was created and continues to
find expression in the work of contemporary
Chicano and Chicana writers of the “borderland”
region. Unit 2 explores a wide variety of contact
and border experiences, including narratives by
Christopher Columbus, Bartolomé de las Casas,
Bernal Díaz del Castillo, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de
Vaca, Garcilaso de la Vega, Samuel de Champlain,
John Smith, Adriaen Van der Donck, Americo
Paredes, and Gloria Anzaldúa. The unit provides
contextual background and classroom materials
designed to explore the multiple and diverse ways
these writers represented encounters between cultures in contact zones and borderlands.
The video for Unit 2 focuses on four writers
who challenge the geographical, cultural, political,
and racial boundaries in the U.S./Mexico border
region: Bernal Díaz del Castillo and Álvar Núñez
Cabeza de Vaca wrote as Spanish footsoldiers who
witnessed the brutal tactics of conquest and subjugation visited upon Native Americans. Writing
centuries later, Americo Paredes and Gloria
Anzaldúa protest the continued oppression and
marginalization of people of mestizo ancestry in
the United States. Their work also explores the
dynamic, inclusive potential of the hybrid culture
of the border region. All of these writers articulate
the tensions inherent in power relations in border

4

U N I T

2 ,

E X P LO R I N G

B O R D E R L A N D S

regions, as well as the possibility for the formation
of new identities in these interactive spaces.
In its coverage of these writers and their texts,
the video introduces students to the complexity of
the concept of the “border” and of cultural and
racial boundaries more generally. How do the texts
in Unit 2 represent the violence and exploitation
that were part of the European exploration of the
New World? What kinds of beliefs and expectations did European colonizers bring with them to
the Americas? How did the sophisticated and varied cultures of native peoples impact the settlements Europeans created in America? How do
European writers represent the experiences and
cultures of indigenous peoples? How does gender
complicate power relations in contact zones and
borderlands? How has mestizo identity transformed over time? Unit 2 helps answer these questions by offering suggestions on how to connect
these writers to their cultural contexts, to other
units in the series, and to other key writers of the
era. The curriculum materials help fill in the
video’s introduction to contact zones and borderlands by exploring the works of writers who articulated other, diverse experiences, such as Samuel
de Champlain (who wrote as a French colonist in
sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Canada),
Adriaen Van der Donck (who described the Dutch
colonial experience in New Netherland), and
Garcilaso de la Vega (who drew on his mixed
European and Incan heritage to write histories of
Indian/Spanish interactions).
The video, the archive, and the curriculum
materials situate Unit 2’s writers within several of
the historical contexts that shaped (and continue
to shape) their texts: (1) the formation of the
U.S./Mexican border and the impact of “borderlands” and boundaries on American culture;
(2) Native American modes of writing and representing history, including contact histories; (3) traditional archetypes of Mexican and Mexican
American femininity; (4) the discourse of “wonder” in contact narratives; and (5) metaphors of
romance and eroticism that are common to conquest narratives.
The archive and curriculum materials suggest
how the writers and texts featured in Unit 2 relate
to those covered in other American Passages units:
How does mestizo/a culture challenge dominant
contemporary ideas about the origin of America

and American identity? How did the history writing and historias of contact experiences shape subsequent American texts? How have concepts of
Native American and Chicana femininity evolved
over time? How have “borderlands” shaped American culture and politics? How do concepts of writing and literacy differ among cultures? How has
transculturation shaped the American experience?

Student Overview
After the Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de
Vaca was shipwrecked and stranded in the presentday southwestern United States, he spent years living among Native American groups while seeking
out his own countrymen. When he finally encountered a group of Spaniards, he was surprised to
realize that they did not seem to recognize him as
European: “They were dumbfounded at the sight of
me, strangely undressed and in company with
Indians. They just stood staring for a long time, not
thinking to hail me or come closer.” At the same
time, he found that his Indian companions refused
to believe that he was of the same race as the
“Christian slavers,” or Spanish colonists, whom
they associated with exploitation, cruelty, and
enslavement. Somehow, in the process of living
among the Indians and mixing their culture with
his own European customs, Cabeza de Vaca had
created a hybrid identity for himself that was neither wholly Indian nor wholly European. His
unique experience was a product of the complex
culture of the “contact zone,” which scholar Mary
Louise Pratt has characterized as an “interactive”
and “improvisational” space where groups geographically and historically separated from one
another come into contact and establish relationships. As Cabeza de Vaca’s experience makes clear,

contact and conquest were not one-way experiences in which Europeans simply imposed their
will on passive Native Americans. Instead, contact
is always characterized by intersecting practices
and perspectives, even if power relations are often
unequal. As diverse groups of Europeans explored,
settled, and exploited the New World of North and
South America in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, they came into contact with
diverse groups of Native Americans, creating
contact zones from present-day Canada to the
Caribbean. The dynamic, fluid cultures that arose
out of the contact zones were marked by antagonism and violence as competing groups struggled
for power. These contact zones could, however, also
give rise to vibrant new traditions forged out of
cooperation and innovation.
Unit 2, “Exploring Borderlands: Contact and
Conflict in North America,” examines the contact
zones and colonial experiences of European explorers and the Native Americans they encountered.
The unit also pays special attention to the way the
contact zone between present-day Mexico and the
southwestern United States evolved into a hybrid
border region that continues to be influenced by
the legacies of the different groups who first struggled there for dominance in the sixteenth century.
After hundreds of years of war, intermarriage,
trade, slavery, and religious struggles, a complex,
syncretic culture has flourished in the space that
marks the current U.S./Mexican border. As conquerors and conquered merged, a new mestizo
identity (a blending of Indian, European, and
African heritage) was created and continues to find
expression in the work of contemporary Chicano
and Chicana writers of the borderland region.
Unit 2 explores the multiple and diverse ways that
writers have represented encounters among cultures in contact zones and borderlands, from the
fifteenth to the twenty-first century.

S T U D E N T

O V E R V I E W

5

Video Overview
➣ Authors covered: Bernal Díaz del Castillo, Álvar
Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Americo Paredes, Gloria
Anzaldúa
➣ Who’s interviewed: Gloria Anzaldúa, author; Juan
Bruce-Novoa, professor of Spanish and Portuguese
(University of California, Irvine); Maria Herrera-Sobek,
professor of Chicana studies (University of California,
Santa Barbara); Sonia Saldívar-Hull, professor of
English (University of Texas, San Antonio); Elliot Young,
assistant professor of English (Lewis and Clark College)
➣ Points covered:
• The U.S./Mexico border region is an area with a long
and complex history of challenging racial, political,
cultural, and geographical boundaries. Contemporary Chicano/a literature and culture arise out of a literary history that begins with the narratives of Spanish
exploration. Spaniards Bernal Díaz del Castillo and
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca were eyewitnesses to
the vibrant pre-Conquest indigenous cultures that
existed in the area, as well as to the brutal realities of
the sixteenth-century Spanish conquest that devastated it. These writers helped begin a uniquely Latino
and American literary tradition. After centuries of cultural and racial integration, twentieth-century critics
and creative writers Americo Paredes and Gloria
Anzaldúa have re-examined the history of the borderlands from the perspective of the mestizo/a.
• Bernal Díaz del Castillo served as a footsoldier in
Hernán Cortés’s campaign to conquer Mexico
between 1519 and 1521. Many years later, he wrote
about his unique perspective on the Conquest in his
True History of the Conquest of New Spain. His narrative was one of the first accounts of Doña Marina, or
La Malinche, the native woman who served as
Cortés’s translator, negotiator, and mistress. Doña
Marina is a conflicted and contradictory figure within
the tradition of Chicano/a literature: some see her as
a traitor who sold out her own people to the Spanish,
while others argue that she is better understood as an
effective mediator between cultures.
• Cabeza de Vaca sailed to the New World in 1527 as
part of a Spanish expedition to Florida. After being
shipwrecked, he wandered for nine years among the
Indians of the present-day U.S. Southwest before finding his way back to a Spanish settlement. In the
process he became acculturated to Native American
practices and learned Native American languages,
thus becoming the first cultural mestizo in the region.
• Three hundred years after Cabeza de Vaca, Americo

6

U N I T

2 ,

E X P LO R I N G

B O R D E R L A N D S

Paredes committed himself to studying and celebrating the legacy of mestizo culture in the border region.
He collected and recorded the Chicano musical tradition of the corridos, subversive songs that narrate the
struggles of Mexican heroes against Anglo oppression. His novel, George Washington Gomez, tells the
story of a Chicano coming of age in the borderlands.
• Gloria Anzaldúa built on Paredes’s legacy of Chicano
activism to empower Chicana and mestiza women.
Her 1987 book, Borderlands/La Frontera, gives voice
to women of mixed identity and challenges traditional
racial, cultural, linguistic, and gender boundaries. She
has been part of the movement to recuperate and
redefine Doña Marina as a heroine and inspiration to
Chicanas.

PREVIEW

• Preview the video: Home to pre-Conquest indigenous
peoples, European conquistadors, and mestizos of mixed
racial and cultural background, the U.S./Mexico border
region has long been a site of contact, conflict, and new
beginnings. It is a place where geographical, cultural,
political, and racial boundaries are challenged and
restructured. Contemporary Chicano literature and culture arises out of a literary history that begins with the
narratives of Spanish exploration. In the sixteenth century,
Bernal Díaz del Castillo served as a footsoldier in the
army of conquistadors that devastated the Aztec Empire
in central Mexico. Much later, as an old man, he wrote
about his experiences and offered insights into the Conquest from the perspective of a humble soldier. His narrative provides one of the earliest accounts of the
controversial figure of Doña Marina, or La Malinche, the
native woman who served as Cortés’s mistress, interpreter, and negotiator. Doña Marina became a key symbol in the oral and literary traditions of later generations
of Chicanos. Another Spanish soldier of the sixteenth
century, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, had a very different experience in the New World. Sailing to the Americas
in 1527 as part of a Spanish expedition to Florida, he
was shipwrecked off the coast of Texas. During his nine
years in the border region, Cabeza de Vaca evolved into
what some critics have called “the first cultural mestizo”
and hence the first writer of Chicano literature. By learning the languages and becoming familiar with the culture
of the many Native American tribes among which he
moved, he constructed a mixed identity for himself. Centuries later, that mixed identity has become common in

Video Overview (continued)
the border region. By the late twentieth century, people of
mixed Spanish/Anglo/Indian/African blood who lived in
this region began protesting the extent to which their culture had been marginalized by dominant Anglo society.
Americo Paredes contributed to this movement by collecting and recording the musical border ballad tradition of
the corridos, subversive songs about Chicano heroes who
resist Anglo oppression. Building on Paredes’s legacy,
contemporary writer Gloria Anzaldúa explores the positive, inclusive possibilities that a mixed background offers
to mestizos and mestizas. Protesting oppression based on
race, class, and gender, she has given a voice to mestiza
women inhabiting the borderlands and redefined the role
of women as envisioned by Bernal Díaz del Castillo and
other earlier writers.
• What to think about while watching: How has the
southwestern border region changed over time? What
political and social issues have shaped the literature of

the borderlands? What is the relationship between the
conquerors and conquered? How do these writers articulate an ideal of a mixed and inclusive identity? How does
the Chicano notion of “historia” complicate traditional
Anglo ideas about the distinction between history and fiction? What traditional stereotypes have been applied to
mestiza women? How have women restructured and
redefined the identities open to them in the borderlands?
• Tying the video to the unit content: Unit 2 expands on
the issues discussed in the video to further explore the
complex contact and conflict between different groups in
different geographical border regions and contact zones.
The curriculum materials offer background on Spanish,
French, Dutch, and English writers and texts not featured
in the video. The unit offers contextual background to
expand on the video’s introduction to the political issues,
historical events, and literary styles that shaped the literature created in the borderlands.

V I D E O

O V E R V I E W

7

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR THE VIDEO
How do place and time shape
literature and our understanding of it?

How are American myths created, challenged, and reimagined through these works
of literature?

Comprehension
Questions

What are borderlands? What
boundaries besides geographical
ones are challenged in border
regions?

What is a mestizo/mestiza?

Who was Doña Marina, or La
Malinche?

Context
Questions

How does Cabeza de Vaca’s
almost anthropological account of
his time among the natives resonate with Americo Paredes’s
sociological/anthropological
approach to recording the traditional musical and folk traditions
of Chicano culture?

How might Bernal Díaz’s description of Tenochtitlán have inspired
Chicano activists’ ideas about
Aztlán and its culture?

How do corridos celebrating the
exploits of Gregorio Cortez invoke
and rewrite the legacy of Hernán
Cortés the Spanish conquistador?

Exploration
Questions

8

What is an American? How does
American literature create conceptions of the American experience and identity?

How have Native American,
mestizo, and mestiza identity
changed over the course of hundreds of years of contact and conflict between groups in the
U.S./Mexico border region?

How has mestizo culture challenged dominant European
American ideas about the origins
of America?
What does the term Chicano
mean? Where does it come from?
How does it differ from the terms
Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish
American? Which of these terms
do you feel is most appropriate for
the writers featured in the video
and why?

What modes of protest do you
think are most effective at
enabling an oppressed group to
challenge stereotypes and limitations imposed by the dominant
culture?

U N I T

2 ,

E X P LO R I N G

B O R D E R L A N D S

TIMELINE
Texts
1490s

Contexts

Christopher Columbus, “Letter to Luis de Santangel
Regarding the First Voyage” (1493)

Columbus sails from Spain for the New World,
arrives in the Bahamas and claims the land for
Spain (1492)
Jews expelled from Spain by order of Ferdinand and
Isabella (1492)
Publication of the first Spanish Grammar, Gramática
de la Lengua Castellana, by Antonio Nebrija
(1492)
New World divided between Spain and Portugal by
the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Bartolomé de las Casas sails with Columbus on his
third voyage to America after receiving a law
degree from the University of Salamanca (1498)

1500s

Martin Waldseemüller coins the name “America” on
a map of the New World (1507)

1510s

Bartolomé de las Casas named “Protectorate to the
In...

Tags module discued writers european contact american writers native border cabeza european spanish unit history groups borderlands experiences identity vaca zones cultures culture cultural america region conquest world texts castillo years video exploration americans literary

Tutorials for this Question
Available for
$10.00

Many European writers have been discussed in Module 2

Tutorial # 00109645
Posted On: 10/09/2015 08:26 PM
Posted By:
Best Tutors for school students, college students kimwood
Expert tutors with experiences and qualities
Questions:
113639
Tutorials:
113886
Feedback Score:
Report this Tutorial as Inappropriate
Tutorial Preview …metaphors xxxxxxxxx and xxxxxxxxx that are xxxxxx to conquest xxxxxxxxxx The xxxxxxx xxx curriculum xxxxxxxxx suggesthow the xxxxxxx and texts xxxxxxxx in xxxx x relateto xxxxx covered in xxxxx American Passages xxxxxxxxx does xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx challenge xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ideas about xxx origin of xxxxxxx and xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx How xxx the history xxxxxxx and historias xx contact xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx subsequent xxxxxxxx texts? How xxxx concepts ofNative xxxxxxxx and xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx evolvedover xxxxx How have xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx shaped American xxxxxxx and xxxxxxxxx xxx do xxxxxxxx of writing xxx literacy differ xxxxx cultures? xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx shaped xxx American experience?Student xxxxxxxxxxxxx the Spanish xxxxxxxx Álvar xxxxxxx xxxxxx deVaca xxx shipwrecked and xxxxxxxx in the xxxxxxxxxx southwestern xxxxxx xxxxxxx he xxxxx years living xxxxx Native American xxxxxx while xxxxxxxxxx xxx own xxxxxxxxxx When he xxxxxxx encountered a xxxxx of xxxxxxxxxx xx was xxxxxxxxx torealize that xxxx did not xxxx to xxxxxxxxx xxx asEuropean: xxxxxxx were dumbfounded xx the sight xxxxx strangely xxxxxxxxx xxx in xxxxxxx withIndians They xxxx stood staring xxx a xxxx xxxxx notthinking xx hail me xx come closer xxx At xxx xxxxxxxxx he xxxxx that his xxxxxx companions refusedto xxxxxxx that xx xxx of xxx same race xx the“Christian slavers,” xx Spanish xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx associated xxxx exploitation, cruelty, xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Somehow, in xxx process xx xxxxxxxxxxx the xxxxxxx and mixing xxxxx culture withhis xxx European xxxxxxxx xxxxxx de xxxx hadcreated a xxxxxx identity for xxxxxxx that xxx xxxxxxx wholly xxxxxx nor wholly xxxxxxxx Hisunique experience xxx a xxxxxxx xx the xxxxxxxxxxxxxx of the xxxxxxxxxx zone,” which xxxxxxx MaryLouise xxxxx xxx characterized xx an “interactive”and xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx space where xxxxxx geographically xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx separated xxxx oneanother come xxxx contact and xxxxxxxxx relationships xx xxxxxx de xxxxxxxx experience makes xxxxxxxxxxxxx and conquest xxxx not xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx in xxxxx Europeans simply xxxxxxx theirwill on xxxxxxx Native xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx contactis xxxxxx characterized by xxxxxxxxxxxx practicesand perspectives, xxxx if xxxxx xxxxxxxxx are xxxxxxxxxxxx As diverse xxxxxx of Europeans xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx and xxxxxxxxx xxx New xxxxx of North xxxxxxxx America in xxx fifteenth, xxxxxxxxxx xxx seventeenth xxxxxxxxxx they came xxxx contact withdiverse xxxxxx of xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx creatingcontact xxxxx from present-day xxxxxx to theCaribbean xxx dynamic, xxxxx xxxxxxxx that xxxxxxxx of the xxxxxxx zones were xxxxxx by xxxxxxxxxx xxx violence xx competing groups xxxxxxxxxxxx power These xxxxxxx zones xxxxxx xxxxxxxx alsogive xxxx to vibrant xxx traditions forged xxx ofcooperation xxx xxxxxxxxxx Unit xx “Exploring Borderlands: xxxxxxx andConflict in xxxxx America,” xxxxxxxx xxx contactzones xxx colonial experiences xx European explorers xxx the xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx they xxxxxxxxxxx The unit xxxx pays special xxxxxxxxx to xxx xxx thecontact xxxx between present-day xxxxxx and thesouthwestern xxxxxx States xxxxxxx xxxx a xxxxxxxxxxxx region that xxxxxxxxx to be xxxxxxxxxx bythe xxxxxxxx xx the xxxxxxxxx groups who xxxxx struggled there xxx dominance xx xxx sixteenth xxxxxxx After hundreds xx years of xxxx intermarriage,trade, xxxxxxxx xxx religious xxxxxxxxxx a complex,syncretic xxxxxxx has flourished xx the xxxxx xxxxxxxxx the xxxxxxx U S xxxxxxxx border As xxxxxxxxxx and xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx a xxx mestizoidentity (a xxxxxxxx of Indian, xxxxxxxxx andAfrican xxxxxxxxx xxx created xxx continues to xxxxxxxxxxxxxx in the xxxx of xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx Chicana xxxxxxx of the xxxxxxxxxx region Unit x explores xxx xxxxxxxx and xxxxxxx ways thatwriters xxxx represented encounters xxxxx cultures xx xxxxxxx zones xxx borderlands, from xxxxxxxxxxxx to the xxxxxxxxxxxx century x x U x E N xx V E x V x x W5 xxxxx Overview➣ Authors xxxxxxxx Bernal Díaz xxx Castillo, xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx de xxxxx Americo Paredes, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Who’s interviewed: xxxxxx Anzaldúa, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx professor xx Spanish and xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx of California, xxxxxxxx Maria xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Chicana xxxxxxx (University of xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Barbara); Sonia xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx professor xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx of xxxxxx San Antonio); xxxxxx Young,assistant professor xx English xxxxxx xxx Clark xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Points covered:• xxx U S xxxxxxx border xxxxxx xx an xxxx with a xxxxxxx complex history xx challenging xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx and xxxxxxxxxxxx boundaries Contemporary xxxxxxxxx literature and xxxxxxx arise xxx xx a xxxxxxxx history that xxxxxx with the xxxxxxxxxx of xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx Bernal xxxxx del Castillo xxxxxxxxx Núñez Cabeza xx Vaca xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tothe xxxxxxx pre-Conquest indigenous xxxxxxxx thatexisted in xxx area, xx xxxx as xx the brutal xxxxxxxxx ofthe sixteenth-century xxxxxxx conquest xxxx xxxxxxxxxx it xxxxx writers helped xxxxx a uniquely xxxxxxxxx American xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx After xxxxxxxxx of cultural xxx racial integration,…
Attachments
soln.zip (8.13 KB)
Preview not available.
Purchase this Tutorial @ $10.00 *
* - Additional Paypal / Transaction Handling Fee (3.9% of Tutorial price + $0.30) applicable
Loading...