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Joseph CosperAnnotated BibliographyThe start of the “Dark Ages” started new movements towards religions and military expansion lead by new powers that took over the Roman Empire."8 Reasons Why Rome Fell." A&E Television Networks, 14 Jan. 2014. Web. 15 Sept. 2014. article supported by the history channel goes to talk about the strength of what was once known as the Roman Empire to the top eight reasons why the Roman Empire fell. I found it really interesting because it started with constant invasions of Barbarian tribes such as the Visigoths which primarily sacked the Roman Empire. Then the article talks about Economic troubles and there dependency on slave labor and then the issue with pirates interrupting trade routes through the Mediterranean Ocean. From there the Eastern Empire began to raise and it talks about the unwillingness to work together and the fall begins do to no outside support. Another reason it talks about is the over expansion and military spending which when your resources are not allocated correctly that can lead to many problems. From there came government corruption and everyone stopped working together in the interest of Rome and began to work in the interest of their pocket, then civil war broke out within. Then the Huns and other barbarians began to appear and lead to the Eastern Empires Valens death in the battle of Adrianople. Then it talks about the spread of Christianity and the loss of traditional values which complicated governing officials because now the pope and religious leaders began to come to power. Finally you can’t forget about the weakening of the Roman legions that began to lose faith in their leadership because of the mercenary’s that were being hired because the empire couldn’t find legions which was changed to soilders."Middle Ages." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Sept. 2014. Web. 16 Sept. 2014. Article has a lot of information and subpages that connect to it as well starting the early middle ages covering new societies and Byzantine survival to the western society and religion. It talks about the trade and economy along with the Carolingian Europe and the breakup of the Carolingian. It also covers the new kingdoms and a revived Byzantium. Not to forget my personal favorite the military advancements and technological advancements as well. From there it goes covering the rise to power and church life and Architecture, art, and music. Finishing it up in the late Middle Ages from war, famine, and plague to society and economy. This article also talks about late med evil art and architecture. Then finishing the article with Modern perceptions. It’s very interesting to see all the advancements in art and technology and all the Universities that began to open to educate the general populations. In this period and the development of religion/ the spread of religion and the many different types of religions that come into play. However in shown in history it only takes a few to be power hungry and want power through whatever means in this case religion no wonder the religious wars soon started which were by far the bloodiest wars of them all. "Charlemagne." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Sept. 2014. Web. 16 Sept. 2014. article really goes into getting to know Charlemagne and his “entrance” into being a king from being a co- ruler with his brother Carloman I. It is interesting to see that his brother Carloman I suddenly dies with an unexplained circumstance and contently leaves Charlemagne into power which later becomes known as “Charles the Great.” Charlemagne accomplished quite a bit along with a lot of killing forcing the spread of Christianizing individuals upon penalty of death, at time leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlesmagne reached his power in the 800 when he was crowned “emperor” by Pope Leo III. Called the “Father of Europe Charlemagne united most of Western Europe for the first time since Roman Empire. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance a period of cultural and intellectual activity within the Catholic Church. This was the spread of a lot of religious paintings and darker painting. Such as Antoine Vérard was a late 15th and early 16th century French publisher, bookmaker and bookseller. Julius Köckert (1827-1918) fut un peintre allemand which is one of my favorite painting of the time which shows Harun al-Rashid recieving a délégation of Charlemagne in Baghdâd by Julius Kockert. (1864)"10 Interesting Facts About The Byzantine Empire - Listverse." Listverse. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2014 website just showed me different things about the Byzantine Empire starting with the Origin of the Empire’s name coming from around 660 B.C., a greek citizen, Byzas from the town of Megara Near Athens, consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. Byzas requested advice on where he should found a new colony, since the mainland of Greece was becoming overpopulated. The oracle simply whispered, opposite the blind.” Which lead to the discovery of Chalcedon feeling the hidden message meant the founders of this great city must have been blind because they had not seen the obviously superior site just a half mile away on the other side of the strait. So he nameds it Byzantium after himself. The location occupied a strategic position between the black sea and the Mediterranean. Which eventually became the leading port and trade center, linking the continents of Europe and Asia together. However in 590 B.C., Byzantium was destroyed by the Persians it was later rebuilt by the Spartans and then fought over by the Athens and Sparta until 336 B.C. From 336 to 323 B.C. it was under the control of the famous Greek general, alexander the great which brought back the independence to Byzantium. From there a new empire was born. Then the split of the empire began and the golden era of Justinian I. From here the article goes over the Greek element take over then to my personal favorite the development of the Navy and the hidden documents / new age weapons created from the Byzantine Navy. Finishing with the Byzantine Cuisine to having the most powerful economy in Europe and the great Schism."Eastern Versus Western Roman Empire Compared." Suite. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2014. website just gave me an insight of the main differences of the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire to include the difference in Religion, Law, and Culture. I found it to be interesting for the comparison and how different things the Eastern Empire ruled which probably is the reason why they were more successful over the western.


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Question # 00028758
Subject: Literary Studies
Due on: 10/20/2014
Posted On: 10/20/2014 12:02 PM

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What does the term the Dark Ages mean? In what ways were the Dark Ages dark? In what ways was this society inadvertently preparing to emerge in modernity through the preservation of classical literature and scripture? What particular impact did Ireland have in the world that would emerge from the Dark Ages? Consider the literature produced in early Old English, a Germanic language with a Celtic imagination, expressed in Arthurian legend. What do these breathtaking legends of knights and honor have to do with our modern sense of ethics? What is the chivalric code?

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