community college, but the instructor’s lecture is carried over two-way television from the state
university located in another city. This is an example of
b. distance learning.
c. conference training.
82. Combining short, fast-paced, interactive computer-based lessons and teleconferencing with traditional
classroom instruction and simulation is called
b. combined training.
c. blended learning.
d. job-instruction training.
83. Presenting training content in a gaming simulation format has all the following advantages EXCEPT
a. enhancing employee interest in training.
b. improving transfer of training.
c. performance improvement.
d. low-cost design.
84. All of the following are advantages of e-learning EXCEPT
a. it leads to significantly greater retention of training content.
b. e-learning allows trainees to progress at their own speed.
c. e-learning incorporates built-in feedback.
d. e-learning allows trainers to update the content relatively easily.
85. The director of training is evaluating whether an e-learning method should be used for a supervisordevelopment
program. The director should consider all the following factors EXCEPT
a. whether supervisors who need training are in distant locations.
b. whether current training materials can be easily adapted to an e-learning format.
c. if the supervisors are self-motivated enough to work through the training program alone.
d. whether current supervisor training is meeting organizational goals.
86. In order to qualify as a tax-preparer for a seasonal job at a tax-preparation chain, Martin must answer
written questions on tax terminology covered in an e-learning course. Martin’s scores on this test
evaluate the training on a ____ level.
87. Theresa, a company trainer, is reading the results of her customer-service training program
evaluations. She has very high ratings in the areas of class enjoyability and trainee willingness to take
the program again. This evaluation of Theresa’s training is on the ____ level.
88. The difficulty with evaluating results by measuring the effect of training on the achievement of
organizational objectives is
a. pinpointing whether it actually was training that caused the changes.
b. that organizational results are not clearly quantifiable.
c. the criteria are hard to obtain.
d. the difficulty of interpreting subjective performance measures.
89. The ____ level of evaluation involves measuring the effect of training on job performance through
interviews of trainees and their coworkers and observing job performance.
90. The most difficult level of training evaluation, but the one that has the most value to the organization is
the ____ level.
91. Which is the best way to determine if training is cost effective?
a. measure improvements in performance resulting from training
b. compare costs and benefits associated with training
c. calculate the cost per employee of the training
d. determine whether training expenses came within budget
92. What is NOT a cost of training that should be taken into account when calculating the costs and
benefits of a training program?
a. trainer’s salary and time
b. hotel and food expenses for trainees if training is off-site
c. opportunity cost of trainees being away from work
d. reduction in morale of employees who were not selected for training
93. Conrad, the director of training, must establish for top management the amount of financial benefit the
company has realized for the amount of money that has been put into the mechanics’ training program.
Conrad needs to prepare a
a. return on investment analysis.
b. net gain calculation.
c. actual versus proposed budget comparison.
d. results evaluation.
94. ____ to evaluate training, HR professionals in an organization gather data on training and compare
them to data on training at other organizations of similar size in their industry.
a. When using the results approach
b. When using benchmarking
c. To use a cost/benefit analysis
d. When implementing a return on investment analysis approach
95. The best way to determine if the training caused the change in performance, or whether it was some
other factor, is to use
a. a control group.
b. a pre-test measure.
96. A problem with the pre/post measure of evaluating training is
a. the difficulty of constructing a good test.
b. whether employees were randomly assigned to the control group.
c. being able to intervene in the workplace at the appropriate times.
d. knowing if the training was responsible for any changes in performance.
97. The training manager is reporting on the results of the training of new cashiers at the soon-to-open
theme park. In his report, the training manager says the training program was highly effective because
90% of the cashiers could operate at the required speed when tested at the end of the program. As
director of HR
a. you are pleased that the training program is so effective, and you will ask the manager to
repeat the same program in the future.
b. you ask if the training manager tested the new cashiers before they received the training.
c. you are pleased with this results-level evaluation because the cashiers will perform at least
this well when they are on the job.
d. you ask if the director collected any data on whether the cashiers liked the training.
1. If employees view e-learning tools as an Internet game that they enjoy playing, the training has
succeeded because the employees are not avoiding the training process.
2. Christopher has a heart problem that makes vigorous activity dangerous. His work team is going to
Utah for a white-water rafting outdoor experience to learn team building skills. Christopher is invited
to go along, but he will have to wait at the hotel while everyone else is on the water and camping out.
Christopher may have a legal case that he has not been accommodated in this training program.
3. Training focuses on improving employee capabilities needed for their current job. Development
focuses on employee capabilities needed for both their current and their future jobs.
4. Training should be viewed tactically because it is focused on employees’ current job capabilities.
Development should be viewed strategically because it is focused on employees’ needed future
5. The frequent changes to which the organization must adapt demands that employees be continually
trained to update their capabilities.
6. Cross-cultural training is needed for U.S. employees being transferred to foreign assignments, but it is
less necessary for foreign employees being transferred to U.S. assignments because of the
pervasiveness of the U.S. culture through movies, television and the Internet.
7. Because of the U.S.’s commitment to training specialized and skilled workers, the U.S. will remain the
innovative and strategic leader in the world economy for the foreseeable future.
8. A gap analysis identifies the difference between what an employee knows and what the employee
should know in order to perform the job satisfactorily.
9. It is essential that objectives for training be related to the budgetary priorities identified in the
10. Many job applicants and current employees have low readiness to learn because they lack sufficient
reading, writing and math skills to comprehend the needed training.
11. Carlene arrives at the training facility full of enthusiasm because she is really excited about learning
how to cope with difficult customers. She has encountered a number of intransigent customers and is
eager to see what “tricks” the trainers can show her. Carlene has motivation to learn.
12. Adult learners are more interested in a theoretical approach to training rather than a problem-centered
approach since adults prefer seeing the “big picture.”
13. Alicia will be traveling extensively in Brazil for her employer. Alicia knows no Portuguese and she
will be traveling in areas where there will be few fluent English speakers. Alicia’s employer is sending
her to a two-week language immersion program, where Alicia will be in a totally Portuguese-speaking
environment. This would be classified as massed practice.
14. Behavior modeling is the most elementary way in which people learn, and it is one of the best.
15. The concept of reinforcement is based on the law of confirmation, which states that people tend to
repeat behaviors that receive an immediate confirmation.
16. Phillip waited a week for feedback on how he did on his first sales presentation to clients because his
boss was out of town and had to review a recording of the presentation. This undermines the Phillips
learning because of the lack of immediate confirmation.
17. If a year after the equine safety program, the volunteers at the therapeutic riding stable always cross-tie
the horses while they brush and saddle them, that aspect of the training could be said to have
18. On-the-job training is by far the most commonly used form of training, because it can be smoothly
integrated into the regular work flow.
19. One problem with on-the-job training is the risk that supervisors can transfer bad habits or incorrect
information to the trainees.
20. Employees do not always like to do cross-training, but a learning bonus often makes completing the
training more appealing.
21. Like apprenticeships, internships are a type of cooperative training.
22. The primary purpose of an orientation program is to provide a realistic job preview for new hires when
joining a new organization.
23. Virtual reality can be used to create an artificial environment for police officers, training them when to
use weapons when chasing suspects in darkened and crowded areas.
24. The major cost savings of e-learning programs come from low up-front development costs.
25. Since most of the benefits of training are intangible (such as attitude changes and safety awareness), it
is rarely possible to evaluate the cost effectiveness of training programs.
26. If a training program scored high at the reaction level, the learning level and the behavior level, but
there was no improvement at the results level, one can definitely say the training failed.
1. What learning principles would you consider in designing a training program?
2. What is the purpose of an orientation program? What should the format and content of an effective
3. What is cooperative training? Describe its usefulness.
4. How can an organization determine if its training expenditures are cost effective?