41. Self-efficacy refers to
a. a person's desire to learn training content.
b. learners possessing the basic skills and sufficient cognitive abilities to learn the new tasks.
c. the perceived ability of the instructor to transfer the knowledge to the student.
d. a person's belief that he/she can successfully learn the training program content.
42. Coretta, the director of training for a regional bank, is frustrated with Allen, one of the new teller
trainees. Allen is progressing too slowly to be able to complete the two-week course successfully.
Coretta is considering whether Allen is really ready to learn. Coretta examines all of the following
a. whether Allen has a learning style that is not being addressed by the current teller training
b. whether Allen has the self-confidence that he can successfully learn the tasks.
c. whether Allen is really interested in learning how to do the teller tasks.
d. whether Allen has the cognitive ability to understand the teller tasks.
43. At Plantsman’s Eden nursery, new greenhouse workers are trained in proper techniques for
transplanting rooted cuttings. As part of the training, the workers are given 10 seedlings of different
kinds of plants to transplant. These efforts will be checked by the trainer. This is an example of
a. active practice.
b. behavior modeling.
c. Gestalt learning.
d. visual learning.
44. ____ learners must "get their hands on" and use the training resources.
45. When Abner presents week-long training programs on negotiation techniques to experienced
managers, he deliberately starts out with a general overview of negotiation and how it contributes to
better employer-employee relations. Then, he describes to the trainee-managers the specific parts of
the negotiation training program they will cover in the following week. Abner is using
a. behavior modeling.
b. Gestalt learning.
c. efficacy enhancement techniques.
d. active practice.
46. ____ occurs when trainees perform job-related tasks and duties during training.
a. Whole learning
b. Transfer of training
c. Positive reinforcement
d. Active practice
47. ____ occurs when several practice sessions are stretched out over a period of hours or days.
48. All of the following are principles for designing training for adults EXCEPT
a. building in confidence-raising experiences for the trainees.
b. providing structure and direction.
c. centering the training around problems.
d. clarifying why the training is needed.
49. Cole, the director of training for a manufacturer of heavy equipment, is designing a training program
for new sales representatives. The sales reps need to be able to quote “chapter and verse” from the
company catalog regarding types of equipment, their functions, their appropriate and inappropriate
uses, pricing, and financing packages. Cole’s training program would be most effective if he designed
it using ____ practice for the sales reps.
50. The most elementary way in which people learn is ____, or copying someone else's behavior.
a. behavior modification
b. behavior modeling
c. cognitive practice
d. positive reinforcement
51. In order to encourage employees to take an emergency first aid course and CPR training, the HR
director is giving each employee who completes the first aid and CPR courses a “lottery ticket.” In
July, a plant-wide lottery will be held with prizes worth up to $100. The director of HR has decided to
use the concept of
a. Gestalt learning.
b. behavior modeling.
c. immediate confirmation.
52. The concept of reinforcement is based on the law of
53. Soltura Products, Inc., has a training program for customer service representatives that tests trainees on
their knowledge of company products. Every time the trainee answers a question, he/she learns
whether the answer is right or wrong. This is called
a. behavior modeling
b. primary reinforcement
c. immediate confirmation
d. active practice
54. One way to aid transfer of training to job situations is to ensure that
a. trainers have high levels of self-efficacy.
b. immediate confirmation is provided.
c. the specific details of the training tasks are addressed early in the process.
d. the training mirrors the job context as much as possible.
55. Which of the following statements about transfer of training is TRUE?
a. On the whole and in most circumstances, training results in learning and has a long-term
effect on employee behavior.
b. If employees make the initial transfer of their new skills to the workplace, they will retain
these skills for the long term.
c. Training may have an initial impact on employee behavior, but its impact erodes
dramatically over a year’s time.
d. Transfer of training is so poor that most training efforts must be repeated annually.
56. The most common method for delivering training in the workplace is
a. face-to-face internal training.
b. self-guided training.
c. web conferencing.
d. outside training.
57. ____ is an internal source of training that occurs through interactions and feedback among employees.
a. Informal training
b. Vestibule training
c. Employee development
d. New employee orientation
58. The most common type of training at all levels in an organization is/are
a. simulation exercises.
b. role playing.
c. on-the-job training.
d. classroom instruction.
59. Which of the following is TRUE about on-the-job training (OJT)?
a. It is less disruptive to the work flow than other types of training.
b. It is flexible and relevant to what employees do.
c. It is more expensive than classroom training.
d. OJT is most effective when it arises spontaneously out of job activities.
60. Dr. Smith, a small-animal veterinarian, has hired Carlos as an assistant. On Carlos’ first day, Dr. Smith
shows Carlos the technique for holding a cat during vaccinations. First, Dr. Smith describes the
technique. Then he shows Carlos the technique. Then he asks Carlos to hold the cat and sees if Carlos
is successful. This is an example of
b. cooperative training.
d. on-the-job training.
61. Unions view cross-training unfavorably because it
a. threatens job jurisdiction.
b. may make layoffs easier for the employer to implement.
c. reduces effective wages per hour.
d. increases worker productivity, and thus threatens job security.
62. The two major advantages for the employer of cross-training employees is development and
a. individual employee productivity increases.
b. cost efficiencies.
c. better union relations.
63. Outside training would be appropriate in all the following situations EXCEPT
a. the organization has few employees who need a particular set of skills.
b. the employees need to be trained quickly.
c. the employees have low learner readiness levels.
d. the organization’s HR staff lacks the expertise needed to in the training content.
64. In a small organization without an HR department, new employee orientation is the responsibility of
a. the new employer him/herself.
b. the business owner.
c. the new employee's supervisor or manager.
d. the new employee's coworkers.
65. WWFS has a large number of cooks and other food service workers who will be sent to hostile
environments overseas to prepare meals for the military. The workers have been hired, but they need
to be trained almost immediately because of the contract with the military, and the HR staff at WWFS
is overloaded. It would be most wise for WWFS to
a. cancel the military contract.
b. hire external trainers.
c. hire and train new HR staff to do the training.
d. use on-the-job training when the new hires arrive in the hostile environment.
66. ____ involves the use of vendors to train employees.
b. Job instruction training
c. Performance consulting
d. Cooperative education
67. The Workforce Investment Act encourages employers to hire ____ through tax credits.
a. single mothers
b. disabled adults
c. disadvantaged youths
68. Susan, the new director of training, has noticed that the orientation program for new employees is
quite abbreviated. Basically, the employees are directed to the organization handbook on the
organization’s Web site and told to read it. Susan wants to design and implement a more thorough and
well-designed orientation program, because the company hires about 100 new employees per year at
all levels. In listing her arguments in favor of spending money on this new program, Susan lists all of
the following positive points EXCEPT
a. effective orientation will establish a favorable employee impression of the organization.
b. effective orientation will reduce the number of discrimination lawsuits by employees.
c. effective orientation will ensure employee performance and productivity begin more
d. effective orientation will improve employee retention rates.
69. ____ is the general term for the use of the Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training online.
a. Distance education
c. Computer education
70. Which of the following statements about e-learning is TRUE?
a. E-learning has a much lower drop-out rate than conventional training.
b. E-learning is strongly preferred as a training medium by employees.
c. E-learning provides easy access to more employees than does conventional training.
d. E-learning is somewhat more expensive per trainee than conventional training methods.
71. Which of the following would be identified as a form of cooperative training?
c. on-the-job training
d. school-to-work transition
72. ____ combine job training with classroom instruction from schools, colleges and universities.
b. Educational assistance programs
73. The generic term for training that combines on-the-job experiences with classroom instruction is
c. job instruction training (JIT).
d. cooperative training.
74. Apprenticeships are used most often to train people for jobs in
a. management development.
b. assembly line work.
c. skilled crafts.
d. technology-related areas.
75. The director of HR is reluctant to institute an educational assistance program. His major argument
against such a program is
a. tuition reimbursement is more expensive than other types of training that have greater
benefit to the organization.
b. employees who graduate with new degrees expect promotions and raises, and this is
c. employees who are enrolled in night or weekend programs tend to neglect their jobs
because of the need to study and their reluctance to work overtime.
d. when an employee graduates, he/she may quit and take an offer from another company.
76. Bruce, the director of training, is redesigning the company’s orientation program. He must consider all
of the following variables in deciding what training delivery method to use EXCEPT
a. on average, how many new employees the company hires each month.
b. whether the orientation training can be marketed to other companies in order to generate a
c. the size of the training budget.
d. whether the new hires are geographically dispersed or whether they work in the same
77. In large part, ____ is a socialization tool.
d. on-the-job training
78. A common failure of new employee orientation is
a. focusing on managerial-level employees and neglecting non-exempt employees.
b. over-reliance on Web-based techniques that do not facilitate employee socialization.
c. overloading the new employee with information.
d. neglecting to convey the organization’s history and mission.
79. An artificial surgical environment in which a surgeon could practice a new type of operation without
harming a human being or sacrificing a laboratory animal would be called
a. virtual reality.
b. humanitarian training.
d. artificial learning.
80. The ultimate goal in using e-training techniques is to
a. improve employee technology skills.
b. convey the training content.
c. reduce costs per trainee.
d. increasing consistency in training experiences for employees.