Managerial Finance – Problem Review Set
1.)
One key conclusion of the Capital Asset Pricing Model is that the value an asset should be measured by considering both the risk and the expected return of the asset assuming that the asset is held in a welldiversified portfolio. The risk of the asset held in isolation is not relevant under the CAPM. 

a. 
True 

b. 
False 

2.)
According to the Capital Asset Pricing Model, investors are primarily concerned with portfolio risk, not the risks of individual stocks held in isolation. Thus, the relevant risk of a stock is the stock's contribution to the riskiness of a welldiversified portfolio. 

a. 
True 

b. 
False 

3.)
A stock's beta is more relevant as a measure of risk to an investor who holds only one stock than to an investor who holds a welldiversified portfolio. 

a. 
True 

b. 
False 

4.)
If the expected rate of return for a particular stock, as seen by the marginal investor, exceeds its required rate of return, we should soon observe an increase in demand for the stock, and the price will likely increase until a price is established that equates the expected return with the required return. The sooner this equilibrium is reached, the more efficient the market is judged to be. 

a. 
True 

b. 
False 

5.) Portfolio A has but one stock, while Portfolio B consists of all stocks that trade in the market, each held in proportion to its market value. Because of its diversification, Portfolio B will by definition be riskless. 

a. 
True 

b. 
False 

6.)
The distributions of rates of return for Companies AA and BB are given below: 

State of 
Probability of 

Economy 
State Occurring 
AA 
BB 

Boom 
0.2 
30% 
10% 

Normal 
0.6 
10% 
5% 

Recession 
0.2 
5% 
50% 

We can conclude from the above information that any rational riskaverse investor will add Security AA to a welldiversified portfolio over Security BB. 

a. 
True 

b. 
False 

7.)
Assume that two investors each hold a portfolio, and that portfolio is their only asset. Investor A's portfolio has a beta of minus 2.0, while Investor B's portfolio has a beta of plus 2.0. Assuming that the unsystematic risks of the stocks in the two portfolios are the same, then the two investors face the same amount of risk. However, the holders of either portfolio could lower their risks, and by exactly the same amount, by adding some "normal" stocks with beta = 1.0. 

a. 
True 

b. 
False 

8.)
If the price of money (e.g., interest rates and equity capital costs) increases due to an increase in anticipated inflation, the riskfree rate will also increase. If there is no change in investors' risk aversion, then the market risk premium (r_{M}  r_{RF}) will remain constant. Also, if there is no change in stocks' betas, then the required rate of return on each stock as measured by the CAPM will increase by the same amount as the increase in expected inflation. 

a. 
True 

b. 
False 

9.)
A highly riskaverse investor is considering adding one additional stock to a 3stock portfolio, to form a 4stock portfolio. The three stocks currently held all have b = 1.0 and a perfect positive correlation with the market. Potential new Stocks A and B both have expected returns of 15%, and both are equally correlated with the market, with r = 0.75. However, Stock A's standard deviation of returns is 12% versus 8% for Stock B. Which stock should this investor add to his or her portfolio, or does the choice matter? 

a. 
Either A or B, i.e., the investor should be indifferent between the two. 

b. 
Stock A. 

c. 
Stock B. 

d. 
Neither A nor B, as neither has a return sufficient to compensate for risk. 

e. 
Add A, since its beta must be lower. 

10.)
Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 

a. 
An investor can eliminate virtually all market risk if he or she holds a very large and well diversified portfolio of stocks. 

b. 
The higher the correlation between the stocks in a portfolio, the lower the risk inherent in the portfolio. 

c. 
It is impossible to have a situation where the market risk of a single stock is less than that of a portfolio that includes the stock. 

d. 
Once a portfolio has about 40 stocks, adding additional stocks will not reduce its risk by even a small amount. 

e. 
An investor can eliminate virtually all diversifiable risk if he or she holds a very large, well diversified portfolio of stocks. 

11.)
Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 

a. 
Collections Inc. is in the business of collecting pastdue accounts for other companies, i.e., it is a collection agency. Collections’ revenues, profits, and stock price tend to rise during recessions. This suggests that Collections Inc.’s beta should be quite high, say 2.0, because it does so much better than most other companies when the economy is weak. 

b. 
Suppose the returns on two stocks are negatively correlated. One has a beta of 1.2 as determined in a regression analysis using data for the last 5 years, while the other has a beta of 0.6. The returns on the stock with the negative beta will be negatively correlated with returns on most other stocks in the market during that 5year period. 

c. 
Suppose you are managing a stock portfolio, and you have information that leads you to believe the stock market is likely to be very strong in the immediate future. That is, you are convinced that the market is about to rise sharply. You should sell your highbeta stocks and buy lowbeta stocks in order to take advantage of the expected market move. 

d. 
You think that investor sentiment is about to change, and investors are about to become more risk averse. This suggests that you should rebalance your portfolio to include more highbeta stocks. 

e. 
If the market risk premium remains constant, but the riskfree rate declines, then the required returns on low beta stocks will rise while those on high beta stocks will decline. 

12.)
Stock X has a beta of 0.5 and Stock Y has a beta of 1.5. Which of the following statements must be true, according to the CAPM? 

a. 
If you invest $50,000 in Stock X and $50,000 in Stock Y, your 2stock portfolio will have a beta significantly lower than 1.0, provided the returns on the two stocks are not perfectly correlated. 

b. 
Stock Y’s return during the coming year will be higher than Stock X’s return. 

c. 
If expected inflation increases but the market risk premium is unchanged, the required returns on the two stocks will increase by the same amount. 

d. 
Stock Y’s return has a higher standard deviation than Stock X. 

e. 
If the market risk premium declines, but the riskfree rate is unchanged, Stock X will have a larger decline in its required return than will Stock Y. 

13.) Consider the following information for three stocks, A, B, and C, and portfolios of these stocks. The stocks' returns are positively but not perfectly positively correlated with one another, i.e., the correlation coefficients are all between 0 and 1. 

Expected 
Standard 

Stock 
Return 
Deviation 
Beta 

Stock A 
10% 
20% 
1.0 

Stock B 
10 
10 
1.0 

Stock C 
12 
12 
1.4 

Portfolio AB has half of its funds invested in Stock A and half in Stock B. Portfolio ABC has one third of its funds invested in each of the three stocks. The riskfree rate is 5%, and the market is in equilibrium, so required returns equal expected returns. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 

a. 
Portfolio AB has a standard deviation of 20%. 

b. 
Portfolio AB’s coefficient of variation is greater than 2.0. 

c. 
Portfolio AB’s required return is greater than the required return on Stock A. 

d. 
Portfolio ABC’s expected return is 10.67%. 

e. 
Portfolio ABC has a standard deviation of 20%. 

14.)
Stock A has an expected return of 12%, a beta of 1.2, and a standard deviation of 20%. Stock B also has a beta of 1.2, an expected return of 10%, and a standard deviation of 15%. Portfolio AB has $900,000 invested in Stock A and $300,000 invested in Stock B. The correlation between the two stocks’ returns is zero (that is, r_{A,B} = 0). Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 

a. 
Portfolio AB’s standard deviation is 17.5%. 

b. 
The stocks are not in equilibrium based on the CAPM; if A is valued correctly, then B is overvalued. 

c. 
The stocks are not in equilibrium based on the CAPM; if A is valued correctly, then B is undervalued. 

d. 
Portfolio AB’s expected return is 11.0%. 

e. 
Portfolio AB’s beta is less than 1.2. 

15.)
Jane has a portfolio of 20 average stocks, and Dick has a portfolio of 2 average stocks. Assuming the market is in equilibrium, which of the following statements is CORRECT? 

a. 
Jane’s portfolio will have less diversifiable risk and also less market risk than Dick’s portfolio. 

b. 
The required return on Jane’s portfolio will be lower than that on Dick’s portfolio because Jane's portfolio will have less total risk. 

c. 
Dick's portfolio will have more diversifiable risk, the same market risk, and thus more total risk than Jane's portfolio, but the required (and expected) returns will be the same on both portfolios. 

d. 
If the two portfolios have the same beta, their required returns will be the same, but Jane’s portfolio will have less market risk than Dick’s. 

e. 
The expected return on Jane’s portfolio must be lower than the expected return on Dick’s portfolio because Jane is more diversified. 

16.)
Stocks A and B each have an expected return of 15%, a standard deviation of 20%, and a beta of 1.2. The returns on the two stocks have a correlation coefficient of +0.6. You have a portfolio that consists of 50% A and 50% B. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 

a. 
The portfolio’s beta is less than 1.2. 

b. 
The portfolio’s expected return is 15%. 

c. 
The portfolio’s standard deviation is greater than 20%. 

d. 
The portfolio’s beta is greater than 1.2. 

e. 
The portfolio’s standard deviation is 20%. 

17.)
During the next year, the market risk premium, (r_{M}  r_{RF}), is expected to fall, while the riskfree rate, r_{RF}, is expected to remain the same. Given this forecast, which of the following statements is CORRECT? 

a. 
The required return will increase for stocks with a beta less than 1.0 and will decrease for stocks with a beta greater than 1.0. 

b. 
The required return on all stocks will remain unchanged. 

c. 
The required return will fall for all stocks, but it will fall more for stocks with higher betas. 

d. 
The required return for all stocks will fall by the same amount. 

e. 
The required return will fall for all stocks, but it will fall less for stocks with higher betas. 

18.)
Stock A has a beta of 0.8 and Stock B has a beta of 1.2. 50% of Portfolio P is invested in Stock A and 50% is invested in Stock B. If the market risk premium (r_{M} – r_{RF}) were to increase but the riskfree rate (r_{RF}) remained constant, which of the following would occur? 

a. 
The required return will increase for both stocks but the increase will be greater for Stock B than for Stock A. 

b. 
The required return will decrease by the same amount for both Stock A and Stock B. 

c. 
The required return will increase for Stock A but will decrease for Stock B. 

d. 
The required return on Portfolio P will remain unchanged. 

e. 
The required return will increase for Stock B but will decrease for Stock A. 

19.)
Assume that the riskfree rate remains constant, but the market risk premium declines. Which of the following is most likely to occur? 

a. 
The required return on a stock with beta = 1.0 will not change. 

b. 
The required return on a stock with beta > 1.0 will increase. 

c. 
The return on “the market” will remain constant. 

d. 
The return on “the market” will increase. 

e. 
The required return on a stock with beta < 1.0 will decline. 

20.)
Stock A has an expected return of 10% and a standard deviation of 20%. Stock B has an expected return of 13% and a standard deviation of 30%. The riskfree rate is 5% and the market risk premium, r_{M}  r_{RF}, is 6%. Assume that the market is in equilibrium. Portfolio AB has 50% invested in Stock A and 50% invested in Stock B. The returns of Stock A and Stock B are independent of one another, i.e., the correlation coefficient between them is zero. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 

a. 
Stock A’s beta is 0.8333. 

b. 
Since the two stocks have zero correlation, Portfolio AB is riskless. 

c. 
Stock B’s beta is 1.0000. 

d. 
Portfolio AB’s required return is 11%. 

e. 
Portfolio AB’s standard deviation is 25%. 

21.)
Yonan Corporation's stock had a required return of 11.50% last year, when the riskfree rate was 5.50% and the market risk premium was 4.75%. Now suppose there is a shift in investor risk aversion, and the market risk premium increases by 2%. The riskfree rate and Yonan's beta remain unchanged. What is Yonan's new required return? (Hint: First calculate the beta, then find the required return.) 

a. 
14.03% 

b. 
14.38% 

c. 
14.74% 

d. 
15.10% 

e. 
15.48% 

22.)
Millar Motors has a beta of 1.30 and an expected dividend growth rate of 5.00% per year. The Tbill rate is 3.00%, and the Tbond rate is6.00%. The annual return on the stock market during the past 3 years was 15.00%. Investors expect the annual future stock market return to be 12.00%. Using the SML, what is Millar's required return? 

a. 
12.5% 

b. 
12.8% 

c. 
13.1% 

d. 
13.5% 

e. 
13.8% 

23.)
Suppose you hold a diversified portfolio consisting of a $10,000 investment in each of 12 different common stocks. The portfolio’s beta is 1.25. Now suppose you decided to sell one of your stocks that has a beta of 1.00 and to use the proceeds to buy a replacement stock with a beta of 1.34. What would the portfolio’s new beta be? 

a. 
1.15 

b. 
1.21 

c. 
1.28 

d. 
1.34 

e. 
1.41 

24.)
Your firm's analyst believes that economic conditions during the next year will be either strong, normal, or weak, and she thinks that Crary Inc.'s returns will have the probability distribution shown below. What's the standard deviation of Crary's returns as estimated by your analyst? (Hint: Use the formula for the standard deviation of a population, not a sample.) 

Economic 

Conditions 
Prob. 
Return 

Strong 
30% 
32.50% 

Normal 
40% 
10.25% 

Weak 
30% 
15.75% 




a. 
17.77% 



b. 
18.71% 



c. 
19.65% 



d. 
20.63% 



e. 
21.66% 




Rating:
5/
Solution: Managerial Finance – Problem Review Set