general business data bank
1. A good way to avoid sampling bias in the assessment of public opinion about a specific criminal justice topic is to employ the use of a radio call-in show since those who call radio talk shows represent everyone in the population.
2. Under what conditions would it be appropriate to use a snowball sampling technique?
3. Sampling is the process of:
4. A basic principle of probability sampling is that a sample will be representative of the population from which it is drawn if:
5. Which of the following is the best example of the use of judgmental sampling?
6. The unit about which information is gathered and forms the basis for analysis is known as a:
7. Reliance on available subjects can be an appropriate sampling method if:
8. When a researcher uses a multistage cluster sampling technique they must repeat several sets including:
9. The bell-shaped curve is representative of:
10. Quota samples, judgmental samples, snowball samples and reliance on available subjects are all examples of:
11. When a researcher uses a stratified sampling technique, they
12. What is the relationship between sampling error and sample size?
13. The purpose of sampling is to select a set of elements from a population in such a way that the descriptions of the sample statistics accurately portray the parameters of the population. This is best achieved through use of:
14. In order to study active criminals who have not been arrested for their criminal acts, the researcher would be wise to employ which type of sampling technique?
15. Stratified sampling results in a greater degree of representativeness but at the same time increases the probable sampling error.
16. Which of the following is not accurate with respect to probability sampling?
17. The range of sample statistics obtained when many samples are selected is called
18. When using probability sampling, researchers generalize from observed cases to unobserved ones.
19. Which of the following is not a reason for using random selection methods in selecting samples?
20. Reporters from your local television news affiliate frequently ask people on a pedestrian shopping street during the lunch hour their opinions about criminal justice issues and play the responses on the 6:00 news. The reporters are using:
21. When a researcher uses probability sampling, he/she can:
22. Which of the following statements is true concerning the relationship between standard error and sample size?
23. The true list of elements in the population is called the:
24. Sampling is used because:
25. If the variable that you are interested in studying is so rare that it is unlikely to be discovered using random sampling, what is the best alternative?
26. Multistage cluster sampling with stratification, systematic sampling, simple random sampling and disproportionate stratified sampling are examples of:
27. Sample statistics are used to:
28. Which of the following is not appropriate for use as a sampling frame?
29. The size of the sample and the standard error are related in which of the following ways?
30. The value for a given variable in a population is a:
31. A list of all elements in a population is referred to as the sampling frame.
32. An RA at a local university devised a plan to spot check the dorm for illegal drinking by knocking on every 5th door on each floor. What technique was the RA using?
33. A variable which has two attributes, such as gender, is what type of variable?
34. When researching a population where it is impossible or impractical to compile a list of the elements, what is the proper sampling technique to use?
35. The way to remember the percentages of samples that will fall within one, two and three standard errors of the parameter are the following:
36. Your criminal justice class requires a study of the success of your state’s drug courts. The professor suggests that you first select 10 counties from your state. From those ten counties you will select the two largest cities from each. Finally the drug courts in each of the cities will be monitored to measure success. What type of sampling design did your professor suggest?
37. National Crime Victimization Survey and the British Crime Survey both use the following technique to gather data?
38. Dwayne wanted to find out what the citizens of Canton think about a proposed law that would require sex offenders to be treated in the community in lieu of prison confinement and he decided to randomly call people listed in the phone book. What is his sampling frame?
39. If a researcher has a list of 10,000 elements and wants to sample 1000 and selects every 10th element she is using:
40. Which method begins with a matrix or table describing the characteristics of a target population?
41. Confidence levels allow the researcher to have some idea of how closely their samples reflect the parameter. Which of the following statements about confidence levels is not true?
42. When no reasonable sampling frame exists and a probability sample cannot be drawn, at least estimates about the sample accuracy are available through nonprobability samples.
43. Which sampling method is commonly used to pretest a questionnaire?
44. When a research chooses a sample that is not typical of a large population this is known as:
45. If you did not have the sampling frame of your population but still wanted to use a probability sampling technique for statistical reasons, you should select what type of sample?
46. Random selection permits the researcher to link findings from a sample to the body of probability theory in order to estimate the accuracy of those findings.
47. Cluster sampling is a very efficient tool, but the efficiency means a less accurate sample since with each cluster there is a chance for sampling error.
1. Which of the following is not an advantage of the use of matrix questions?
2. Probably the most important ability for interviewers to have is the ability to:
3. If, on a questionnaire, a respondent is asked “what do you feel is the most important crime problem facing the policy in your city today” they are being asked what type of question?
4. In all but which of the following situations would a survey be the appropriate method of gathering data?
5. It is usually best to begin a self-administered questionnaire with:
6. Which of the following represents a negative item?
7. When dealing with sensitive issues it may be more effective to use a self administered questionnaire.
8. What would be considered the minimum level for an adequate response rate for analysis and reporting of questionnaires?
9. Surveys may be used for descriptive, explanatory and applied research.
10. Bias in questions can be established in which of the following ways?
11. The National Crime Victimization Survey can be used to evaluate local crime prevention programs.
12. Specialized interviewing will consist of which of the following?
13. For research that seeks to explore or explain why people commit criminal, delinquent, or deviant acts, which is the best method available?
14. Which of the following questions is best for a survey?
15. Face-to-face interviews are best for complex questions and other specialized needs.
16. Which of the following represent targeted victims surveys?
17. What procedures can help to guard against a socially desirable response when using self-report items?
18. In the interest of being unambiguous and precise, survey questions should:
19. Surveys that are designed for more than one purpose are known as?
20. The National Jail Census collects information every five years about federal prisons.
21. “Do you support the reduction of property taxes and the construction of a state prison near Atlanta?” is an example of what sort of question?
22. In most cases the following months should be avoided when mailing questionnaires:
23. Which of the following make surveys a good choice for doing research?
24. There are two basic options for researchers when asking questions; open-ended or closed-ended.
25. Inexperienced researchers tend to fear that their questionnaires will look:
26. Focus groups are most useful
27. Questions that encourage respondents to answer in a particular way are known as:
28. “What is your opinion on the death penalty?” is an example of which type of question?
29. Which of the following is not collected routinely by the British Crime Survey?
30. Which of the following would is an accepted method for increasing response rates in mailed surveys?
31. Which of the following have been identified as advantages of the use of computer assisted interviewing?
32. What are the basic ways of administering questionnaires?
33. Which is a potential problem when using self-report surveys with high-rate offenders?
34. first opens their door, the interviewer must establish?
35. If a researcher tries to assess criminal victimization of the poor and disadvantaged, rather than using the term “welfare” in her questionnaire, which of the following is less biased?
36. In general, the longer a potential respondent delays replying:
37. Surveys are best suited for studies that have what as their units of analysis?
38. One of the following is not accurate with respect to the construction of questionnaire items. Which one is inaccurate?
39. Which of the following statements is not true concerning surveys?
40. Which of the following represent advantages to the use of computer aided interviews
41. In general, survey research is:
42. As a general rule the interviewer should dress:
43. Closed ended questions are useful because
44. Focus groups usually consist of 15 to 20 people.
45. Which of the following represent special problems when giving a self-report questionnaire to an incarcerated population?
46. “What is your gender? ______male _______female” is an example of which type of question?
47. Contingency questions are appropriate when:
48. Which of the following is not an example of an advantage of computer assisted in-person interviews?
49. Which of the following is not an advantage of telephone surveys?
50. In contrast to interviews, self-administered questionnaires have the advantages of: