general business data bank
1. The specification of conceptual definitions serves as a specific working definition and also:
2. In general, whenever researchers are concerned that measures obtained through coding may not be classified reliably, they should:
3. In research, the process of regarding something as real (such as crime seriousness) when it is not is called:
4. The assignment of grades by the professor to major research papers is an example of:
5. A lower-level measure cannot be converted to a higher-level one.
6. Reliability is measuring what you think you are measuring.
7. The study of food-buying habits where researchers were interested in learning whether people who drank wine ate healthier foods than people who drank beer—is a good example of:
8. Content validity refers to:
9. The process of developing operational definitions is known as:
10. The primary difference between the interval and the ratio level of variables is that:
11. Reliability is threatened every time there is a single observer as the source of data.
12. Which of the following best represents the abstract “reliability”?
13. The test-retest method is used to examine:
14. Ranks in the local police department represent what level of measurement?
15. Every variable should have two important qualities; their attributes should be exhaustive as well as mutually exclusive.
16. The number of counts on an indictment is what level of measurement?
17. One good indicator of crime seriousness is harm to the crime victim.
18. A definition that spells out exactly how we plan to measure a variable is known as:
19. According to Abraham Kaplan’s (1964) discussion; which of the following are not included in the three classes of things that a researcher measures?
20. Numerous studies have shown that measures of crime based on police records often suffer from:
21. The words or symbols in language used to illustrate subjective thoughts or mental images about things we may encounter in daily life are known as:
22. When a supervisor for a survey contacts a subset of the respondents to verify certain information, it is an example of:
23. The production report generated at the city police department contains the number of arrests made by each officer on a monthly basis. What level of measurement would number of arrests be?
24. A researcher concerned with whether a particular measurement technique will, after repeated measures, yield the same results is concerned with:
25. Particular empirical measures that agree with common understandings of our individual mental images about a specific concept have which kind of measurement quality?
26. Conceptualization is the process by which we specify precisely what we mean when we use particular terms.
27. Validity that is related to the logical relationships between variables is known as:
28. Logical sets of attributes are known as:
29. Validating an individual measure by comparing it with alternative measures of the same concept is known as:
30. Which of the following is representative of the dimension “victim harm”?
31. A person’s height as a measure of a person’s IQ would be seen as having what problem?
32. A questionnaire contained the item “social class” with responses of lower class, lower middle class, middle class, upper middle class, upper class. The researcher asks respondents to check the one that describes them. The researcher is using this question to measure:
33. The key standards for measurement quality are:
34. A researcher has measured fear of crime by asking the subjects whether or not they were afraid of crime and by asking them to rate from 1 – 10 their own fear of crime. Which is the highest level of measurement that is illustrated by this example?
35. Researchers must be able to classify every observation in terms of one and only one attribute. Which of the following terms best describes this concept?
36. Because low marital adjustment should lead to divorce, Professor Quinn checked his measure of marital adjustment by examining whether couples with low martial adjustment scores later obtained divorces. This illustrates the use of:
37. The penalties that are assigned to different crimes by law are best characterized as a dimension of:
38. Disorder is a symbol of urban decay that people associate with
39. Which of the following is an attribute of the variable “employment status”?
40. With respect to levels of measurement which of the following is not correct?
41. When the actual distance that separates the attributes composing some variables does have meaning, the variables are described as:
42. Age of an offender is an example of which level of measurement?
43. A specifiable aspect of a given concept is referred to as a:
44. Although a person’s observations and experiences are real, his or her concepts are:
45. An empirical measure that adequately reflects the meaning of the concept under consideration is known as:
46. The design and execution of criminal justice research requires eliminating the confusion over concepts and reality. To accomplish this, scientists have found it useful to distinguish three kinds of definitions: real, conceptual, and:
47. Professor Smith is studying attitudes toward gun control and plans to assess support for firearms registration by determining whether or not her research subjects say they would travel to countries where the possession of unlicensed guns is legal. Her critics argue that this measure lacks:
48. Sometimes it is necessary to make the same measurement more than once, which is known as:
49. Criterion related validity refers to:
50. Measures of jail capacity were operationalized as whether or not there were more inmates housed at the end of the year than the original building design called for would be an example of what level of measurement?
51. Which of the following variables allows for attributes to be placed on a continuum with equal distance between points?
52. Ratio measures are the highest level, followed by:
53. Operationalization involves:
54. Which of the following sequences illustrates the progression of measurement steps?
55. Ordinal measures are variables whose attributes may be logically rank-ordered.