general business data bank
- Marketing communications perform many functions for consumers such as telling or showing how and why a product is used, by what kind of person, and where and when.
- The rapid diffusion of powerful broadband Internet connections, digital video recorders, multipurpose cell phones, and portable music and video players has bolstered the effectiveness of the mass media.
- Every brand contact delivers an impression that can strengthen or weaken a customer’s view of the company.
- The starting point in planning marketing communications is an audit of all the brands that customers in the target market have with the company.
- Because brand awareness and brand recall operate along the same brand recognition continuum, anything that causes the consumer to notice and pay attention to the brand will enhance brand recall.
- In the macromodel of communication, noise does not affect the communication process between sender and receiver.
- Micromodels of marketing communications concentrate on consumers’ specific responses to communications.
- The “learn-do-feel” model of consumer response models is relevant when the audience has low involvement and perceives little differentiation within the product category.
- All consumers that develop a preference for a given product also display a conviction about buying it.
70. Though we can profile the target audience in terms of any number of market segments, it’s often useful to do so in terms of usage and loyalty.
71. Brand recall is easier to achieve than brand recognition.
72. Promotional offers in the form of coupons or two-for-one deals encourage consumers to make a mental commitment to buy a product, particularly if the consumer does not have an expressed category need.
73.Communication objectives can be set at any level of the hierarchy-of-effect model.
- An informational appeal elaborates on product or service attributes or benefits.
75. Attention-getting tactics are often too effective and distract from brand or product claims.
76. Two-sided messages are more effective when negative associations must be overcome.
- The factors that underlie source credibility include expertise, trustworthiness, and appropriateness.
78. Borrowed-interest approaches to attract attention and create more liking and belief in the sponsor may also detract from comprehension, wear out their welcome fast, and overshadow the product.
79. Messages delivered by attractive or popular sources can achieve higher attention and recall.
80. If a person has a positive attitude toward a source and a message, or a negative attitude toward both, a state of congruity is said to exist.
- The principle of congruity implies that communicators can use their good image to reduce some negative feelings toward a brand but in the process might lose some esteem with the audience.
- Companies that sell their products to different cultures or in different countries do not need to worry about varying their message.
83. Selecting efficient channels to carry the message becomes more difficult as channels of communication become more fragmented and cluttered.
84.Personal communication channels derive their effectiveness through individualized presentation and feedback.
- Most nonpersonal messages come through paid media.
- Mass communications affect personal attitudes and behavior through a two-step process.
- Events always have a lasting effect on brand awareness, knowledge, and preference.
- The influence of mass media on public opinion is as direct, powerful, and automatic as supposed.
89.The two-step flow confirms the notion that consumption styles are primarily influenced by the “trickle-down” or “trickle-up” effect from mass media.
- The percentage-of-sales method of setting promotional expenditures calculates spending dollars based upon a percentage of last years’ total sales.
- The objective-and-task method calls upon marketers to develop promotion budgets by defining specific objectives, determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objectives, and estimating the costs of performing these tasks.
92.The competitive-parity method of promotions budgeting has been repeatedly shown to prevent promotion wars.
93. Advertising can be used to build up a long-term image for a product or trigger quick sales.
- The pervasiveness of advertising permits the seller to repeat a message many times. It also allows the buyer to receive and compare the messages of various competitors.
- Companies must consider several factors in developing their communications mix: the type of product market, consumer readiness to make a purchase, and stage in the product’s life cycle. Also important is the company’s market rank.
- In measuring communication results, senior managers want to know the outcomes and revenues resulting from their communications investments.
- Integrated marketing communications is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan.
- The awareness and attitudes created by advertising campaigns do not generally affect the success of direct sales pitches.
99. Integrated marketing communications can produce stronger message consistency and greater sales impact.
- In assessing the collective impact of an IMC program, the overriding goal is to create the most effective and efficient communications program possible.