general business data bank

Question # 00004606 Posted By: spqr Updated on: 12/04/2013 12:23 PM Due on: 12/31/2013
Subject General Questions Topic General General Questions Tutorials:
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61. An infant who is able to use different techniques for sucking from a breast and sucking from a bottle is demonstrating _____________________.

a. sensorimotor intelligence

b. social referencing

c. object permanence

d. internalization

62. According to Piaget, the primary mechanism underlying the growth of intelligence during infancy is______________________.

a. reciprocity

b. social attachment

c. trust versus mistrust

d. sensorimotor adaptation

63. According to the theory, infants start out with some basic sensory, motor, and cognitive structures. What might modify these structures?

a. experiences that provide new information

b. experiences that support and confirm the structures

c. gazing and concentrating

d. parental warmth

64. How do infants grow in their understanding of causality?

a. through sensory and motor investigation

b. through pointing and naming

c. through visual gazing

d. through memory and recall

65. Babies discover that if they drop a spoon while sitting in the high chair, the spoon will fall to the floor and make a noise. This is an example of ________.

a. emotional differentiation

b. introspection

c. reflexive behavior

d. sensorimotor causality

66. The example given in the text of the emergence of the use of a spoon as a tool for eating illustrates which concept?

a. Motor skills become integrated into purposeful problem-solving strategies.

b. Motor skills develop independently from causal relations.

c. Infants are limited in their exploration of spoons by what they have observed in their home


d. Infants are unable to coordinate means and ends.

67. Piaget considered ___________ to be adaptive learning systems where cause and effect are linked through involuntary responses.

a. circular reactions

b. coordination of means and ends

c. first habits

d. reflexes

68. What are the first and last phases in the development of causal schemes during the sensorimotor period?

a. reflexes; experimentation with new means

b. reflexes; insight

c. first habits; insight

d. first habits; experimentation with means

69. In what way do the last two phases in the development of causal schemes and experimentation with new means and insight differ? In the last phase, __________________________.

a. there is no experimentation, just direct solution of a problem

b. there is no planning

c. babies use novel means to achieve novel goals

d. experimentation is carried out mentally rather than directly

70. Objects do not cease to exist when they are out of reach or view. This concept is referred to as _________.

a. scheme

b. primitive causality

c. means-end relationship

d. object permanence

71. How does one assess an infant’s grasp of object permanence?

a. Give a baby a new object, something he has never seen before, and observe how he plays with it.

b. Remove an object from a baby’s view and observe whether or not the baby pursues the object.

c. Take an object away from a baby and place it among two or three other objects. See if the baby can select the familiar object.

d. Tell the baby “bye-bye” and then see if he/she waves bye-bye to you.

72. Which of the following abilities contributes to the formation of the scheme for the permanent object?

a. mobility

b. gazing

c. asking questions

d. sucking

73. Renee Baillargeon has conducted a number of studies to examine infants’ reactions to objects that are hidden from view. Infants as young as 4 months appear to be surprised when a toy car emerges from behind a screen when it should have been blocked. What is the basic purpose of her studies?

a. to detect dimensions of visual acuity in infants

b. to determine an infant’s ability to track a moving object

c. to demonstrate that infants have a mental image of an object even when it is out of view

d. to present information about infants sense of touch to soft objects

74. One cognitive explanation for an infant’s experience of separation anxiety is the _____.

a. baby lacks object permanence

b. baby is insecurely attached

c. baby has not yet learned to crawl after the caregiver

d. baby has no ability to distinguish the caregiver from a stranger

75. Which of the following categorization tasks can be performed by infants who are about 18 months old?

a. sorting insects into butterflies and bees

b. sorting words into nouns and verbs

c. sorting yellow triangles and human figures into two separate groups

d. none of these

76. What is the adaptive role of the capacity for categorization?

a. It allows you to approach each object as if it were completely novel.

b. It offers a channel for the expression and interpretation of emotions.

c. It allows for sensory and motor exploration of new objects in the environment.

d. It reduces the amount of information that must be processed for each instance of the category.

77. According to Charles Darwin, what is one contribution of emotions to species survival?

a. the first indication of sensorimotor adaptation

b. to provide a mechanism for species variability

c. to communicate the perceived situation to others

d. to enhance fitness

78. Peter Wolff described seven states of arousal among newborn infants. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

a. pride

b. crying

c. waking activity

d. irregular sleep

79. Which of the following is the pattern of development of emotion along the rage-anger dimension?

a. distress, anger, guilt

b. guilt, anger, distress

c. guilt, distress, anger

d. anger, guilt, distress

80. Erika’s son Jonathon is crying. The cries are shrill and high pitched. There are very short pauses between bursts of crying. What is the likely effect of this crying on Erika?

a. Erika finds this very upsetting and thinks something may be seriously wrong with Jonathon.

b. Erika thinks this is a “fussy” cry and does not pay much attention to it.

c. Erika becomes more relaxed realizing that Jonathan probably needs to have his diaper changed.

d. Erika recognizes this cry as a signal that Jonathon is waking up from his nap.

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