general business data bank

Question # 00004587 Posted By: spqr Updated on: 12/04/2013 08:55 AM Due on: 12/31/2013
Subject General Questions Topic General General Questions Tutorials:
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61. According to Damon and Hart, the organizing principle that integrates aspects of the self concept during middle and later childhood is __________________.

a. beliefs and plans

b. interpersonal goals

c. comparative assessments

d. categorical identifications

62. The natural way that children, from ages 4 to 6, become more aware that people have different points of view is detailed in the theory of ________________.

a. mind

b. cognition

c. thought

d. morality

63. The ability to appreciate that what you know or believe to be true is different from what others know and believe to be true is a salient feature of ____________________.

a. self-awareness

b. empathy

c. cognition

d. jealousy

64. A person's evaluation about his or her own worthiness is called __________________.

a. self-esteem

b. egocentrism

c. self theory

d. dissonance

65. People with low self-esteem will see any failure as evidence of their ___________________.

a. contextual dissonance

b. lack of worth

c. sense of efficacy

d. subjective self concept

66. People who have high self-esteem ______________.

a. have strong positive evaluations of all of their abilities

b. find that failure increases their feelings of doubt about their basic worth

c. use a variety of strategies to minimize the importance of negative feedback

d. derive this sense of self-worth primarily through pretend activities

67. Gillian does not feel like anyone likes her and she feels ignored, rejected, and scorned. Gillian suffers from low _____________.

a. self-esteem

b. creativity

c. sense of efficacy

d. persistence

68. Which statement about self-esteem among early-school-age children is correct?

a. Early-school-age boys are more critical of their abilities than early-school-age girls.

b. Early-school-age children are exposed to low levels of peer criticism that challenge self-esteem.

c. Early-school-age children feel less guilty about violating rules and norms than younger children.

d. Early-school-age children are likely to experience feelings of depression and worthlessness that may crystallize into a scheme for low self-esteem.

69. Ring-Around-the-Rosie, London Bridge, and Farmer-in-the-Dell are examples of _______________.

a. sensorimotor play

b. group games

c. team sports

d. social pretend play

70. Group games permit children to shift roles. This contributes to which of the following?

a. perspective-taking abilities

b. fantasy

c. emotional regulation

d. self-esteem

71. By the age of 4 or 5, children who have stable friendships become skilled in ______________.

a. coordinating their interactions with friends

b. creating elaborate pretend games

c. being willing to modify their play preferences so that both members in the friendships have a chance to enjoy the kinds of play they like best

d. all of these

72. Which of the following statements is true about friendships during early school age?

a. Children tend to evaluate each other on the basis of intentions which are usually seen as positive.

b. Children tend to have a rather rigid approach to issues of social responsibility, so that peer play is frequently disrupted by quarrels, “tattling,” and hard feelings about injustices.

c. Children like to let adults “sit in” on peer play sessions so that they can benefit from the adult’s advanced play and problem solving.

d. Children of this age prefer mixed-sex play groups.

73. Why is hopscotch so popular with early-school-age children in many cultures?

c. The game provides a sense of safety and security.

b. There is no fantasy element so children can focus on reality.

c. The game symbolizes perils of childhood and the need for balance while providing opportunities for mastery.

d. It is an easy game with few opportunities for failure.

74. What is one implication of the fact that girls and boys tend to form same-sex friendship groups?

a. Girls never experience leadership among friends.

b. Girls and boys develop distinct peer-communication patterns.

c. Boys learn to be better listeners and acquire valued skills for building group consensus.

d. Girls and boys lack gender identity so there are no same-sex friendships formed.

75. Children are likely to seek others of the same sex as play companions because __________.

a. they believe these children will be kinder to them

b. they believe these children will provide diverse mental representations of possible activities

c. parents guide them into same-sex play groups

d. they believe these other children will have the same play preferences they have

76. Boys and girls tend to use different strategies to achieve ________ in their same-sex friendship groups.

a. dominance

b. self-efficacy

c. continuity

d. sensorimotor equilibrium

77. Which of the following is true about the groups girls and boys prefer during early school age?

a. Girls prefer two-person groups, while boys prefer larger groups.

b. Boys prefer two-person groups, while girls prefer larger groups.

c. Girls prefer mixed-sex groups while boys prefer same-sex groups.

d. Boys prefer mixed-sex groups while girls prefer same-sex groups.

78. What is the psychosocial crisis of early school age?

a. trust versus mistrust

b. autonomy versus shame and doubt

c. industry versus inferiority

d. initiative versus guilt

79. Young children often ask questions about why things are as they are, how things began, and what will happen in the future. This is a sign of ________________.

a. initiative

b. trust

c. autonomy

d. creativity

80. Holger is 6 years old. He had a tooth pulled this afternoon. His mother just tucked him into bed promising him that the tooth fairy would be coming for the tooth while he slept. Holger puts pillows under his blanket and moves into the closet so he can see the tooth fairy take his tooth. This is an example of ____________.

a. mistrust

b. initiative

c. contextual dissonance

d. parental identification

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