general business data bank
24. What is a common consequence of early maturation for girls?
a. higher grades in school
b. high levels of leadership abilities
c. higher levels of conflict with parents
d. loyalty to friends
25. Which of the following does NOTcontribute to sleep deprivation during adolescence?
a. Adolescents are likely to stay up late at night doing homework.
b. Adolescents spend more time in deep sleep leaving them more tired during the day.
c. Many adolescents are in activities that involve before-school preparation.
d. High school tends to start earlier than middle and elementary schools.
26. Alex is in eighth grade and is getting a lot less sleep than he did in sixth and seventh grade because
he stays up late doing his homework and working on the computer. As a result, Alex is experiencing _____.
a. depressive symptoms
b. higher self esteem
c. higher grades
d. anorexia nervosa
27. One change in mental activity that occurs during early adolescence is that young people are able to _____.
a. generate hypotheses about events they have never perceived
b. generate perceptions based on fantasy principles
c. consciously experience changes in the brain
d. use motor behavior as the basis of planning activity
28. Which of the following is NOT one of the important changes in the brain that occurs during adolescence?
a. focused reduction of synapses
b. continuing myelination of nerve fibers
c. new developments in the prefrontal cortex
d. increase in the number of neurons
29. According to Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development that is attained in early adolescence is called __________________________.
a. information processing
b. formal operations
c. general intelligence
d. critical thinking
30. Which of the following is an important characteristic of formal operational thought?
a. the ability to think about themselves, other individuals, and their world in relativistic ways
b. the ability to use sensory and motor schemes to solve non-verbal problems
c. the ability to conform to the expectations of one's peers in guiding one's behavior
d. the ability to do trial and error problem solving
31. Which of the following is likely to be possible because one has attained formal operational thinking?
a. categorizing objects
b. solving conservation problems
c. doing complicated calculations
d. thinking about things changing in the future
32. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about formal operational thinking?
a. No new skills are required; there is a more complex intermingling of skills learned in previous stages.
b. It is best developed through rote learning of complex material.
c. New skills help the person anticipate the consequences of their actions.
d. It depends upon thoughts generated by remote associations to well-learned concepts.
33. The changes in conceptual development that occur during the early adolescent period can result in ______.
a. a less flexible, critical, and longitudinal view of the world
b. fewer creative ideas
c. greater belief in one's own ideas and relatively little understanding of others’ ideas
d. a more flexible, critical, and abstract view of the world
34. According to the text, egocentrism may best be described as ____________________.
a. an attitude children have that they are better than other people
b. a limited perspective a child displays at the beginning of each new phase of cognitive development
c. a feeling of self-admiration
d. a sense that one's own peer group is better than other peer groups
35. Which of the following best describes egocentrism in the early-adolescent period?
a. realizing that one's ideals are not shared by everyone
b. realizing that some people do not like you
c. an inability to recognize that others may not share one's own hypothetical system
d. an inability to identify one’s values or goals.
36. Bob, a high school junior, feels very strongly about the need for the protection of the environment. He realizes, however, that not everyone feels the same way he does. This is an example of which of the following?
37. Adolescents may believe that their thoughts and feelings are unique; that no one else is thinking what they are thinking. Elkind referred to this as _______________.
a. a personal fable
b. a contextual dilemma
c. cognitive dissonance
d. an imaginary audience
38. How is the idea of an imaginary audience related to adolescent egocentrism?
a. Adolescents believe their imaginary audience is unique.
b. Adolescents worry about having "stage fright."
c. Adolescents think that everyone is aware of and preoccupied by their thoughts.
d. Adolescents become shy when people give them too much attention.
39. Which of the following is a potential negative effect of egocentrism in early adolescence?
a. to become more sociable and outgoing
b. to become more flexible in considering alternative possibilities
c. to become overwhelmed by the intensity of one’s ideas and not accept evidence of a different point of view
d. to become less willing to commit antisocial acts
40. Which of the following is a social environmental factor that promotes formal operational thought?
a. watching TV
b. participation in a variety of role relationships
c. withdrawing from peer interaction
d. dropping out of high school
41. As a high school freshman, Carl has become part of a friendship group that involves students from a wide variety of family backgrounds. This is having an impact on his cognitive development. What is the likely outcome?
a. increased egocentrism
b. increased ability to think in a relativistic way about self, others, and the world
c. decreasing likelihood of a successful resolution of group identity
d. decreasing capacity to think logically about the future
42. According to research on formal operational thought,
b. most 13 year olds used formal operational strategies on most problems
c. formal operational thought is observed consistently by adults in all cultures.
d. mature scientific reasoning does not require formal operational thought
d. most 15 year olds do not use formal operational strategies on all problems
43. Which of the following is a criticism of formal operational reasoning as a stage of cognitive development?
a. It does not describe the sensory based reasoning of which adolescents are capable.
b. It does not deal with the ability of adolescents to raise hypotheses about an unknown future.
c. It is not broad enough to encompass the many dimensions along which cognitive functioning changes in adolescence.
d. It includes too many dimensions such as the biological basis and social context of reasoning.
44. The kind of reasoning associated with diplomacy, psychotherapy, and spiritual leadership is called _______.
a. formal reasoning
b. emotional reasoning
c. scientific reasoning
d. postformal reasoning
45. The interdependence of emotion and cognition may result in .
a. improved management of emotional expression
b. overintellectualizing the feelings of others
c. denial of one’s emotional complexity
d. attempts to defend against the behavior of family and friends
46. Larson and Lampman-Petraitis gave electronic paging devices to monitor adolescents’ emotions. They found that adolescents experienced _____________________________.
a. frequent, sudden shifts from intense anger to intense joy
b. more positive emotions than younger children
c. more mildly negative emotions than younger children
d. an increase in variability of emotions with age
47. Which of the following is an example of how adolescent girls differ in their emotional responses from adolescent boys? Adolescent girls are ___________________.
a. more likely than boys to experience strong feelings of anger at others
b. more likely than boys to feel contemptuous of others
c. less likely than boys to experience restless irritability
d. more likely than boys to experience depression
48. Researchers have found that both boys and girls with more mature body shape report more thoughts and feelings that are related to .
49. As adolescents become aware of a more differentiated array of emotions, boys are more likely to have a heightened awareness of new levels of negative emotions that focus on .
a. being crazy
d. frustration and tension
50. After puberty, boys and girls show noticeably different levels of aggression. Problems that result from difficulties in managing aggression are known as .
a. externalizing problems
b. internalizing problems
c. defensive problems
d. turning against the self