fiannce and data bank

Question # 00003939 Posted By: smartwriter Updated on: 11/23/2013 07:42 AM Due on: 11/30/2013
Subject Accounting Topic Accounting Tutorials:
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Relevant Decision Factors

63. The following costs relate to a variety of decision settings:




Allocated corporate overhead

Closing a money-losing department


Cost of an old car

Vehicle replacement


Direct materials

Make or buy a product


Salary of marketing manager

Project discontinuance; manager to be transferred elsewhere in the firm


Home theater installation

Purchase of a new home


Unavoidable fixed overhead

Plant closure


Research expenditures incurred last year, related to new product

Product introduction to marketplace


$4 million advertising program

Whether to promote product A or B with the $4 million program


Manufactured cost of existing inventory

Whether to discard the goods or sell them to a third-world country


Consider each of the nine costs listed and determine whether it is relevant or irrelevant to the decision cited. If the cost is irrelevant, briefly explain why.

Relevant Decision Factors

64. Clancy Van Lines is considering the acquisition of two new trucks. Because of improved mileage, these vehicles are expected to have a lower operating cost per mile than the trucks the company plans to replace. Management is studying whether the firm would be better-off keeping the older vehicles or going ahead with the replacement, and has identified the following decision factors to evaluate:

1. Cost and book value of the old trucks

2. Moving revenues, which are not expected to change with the acquisition

3. Operating costs of the new and old vehicles

4. New truck purchase price and related depreciation charges

5. Proceeds from sale of the old vehicles

6. The 8% return on alternative investments that Clancy will forego by tying up cash in the new trucks

7. Drivers' wages and fringe benefits


Classify the seven decision factors listed into the following categories (note: factors may be used more than once):

A. Relevant costs.

B. Opportunity costs.

C. Sunk costs.

D. Factors to be considered in the decision.

Relevant Costs

65. Attleboro Company recently discontinued the manufacture of product J15. The standard costs for this product were:

Direct material

$ 50

Direct labor


Variable overhead


Fixed overhead




There are 800 units of this product in finished-goods inventory. The units are technologically obsolete, and the following alternatives are being considered:

1. Dispose of as scrap. The proceeds from the sale will equal the cost of transportation to the disposal site.

2. Sell to an exporter for sale in a developing country. The sales price to the exporter would be $12 per unit.

3. Remanufacture the products to convert them into model J16, a model that normally sells for $200. The additional cost to convert the J15 units would be $45; the standard cost to manufacture J16 is $125. Presently, there is sufficient capacity to manufacture product J16 directly or to do the necessary conversion work on J15.


A. Determine the current carrying value of the J15 inventory.

B. Evaluate each alternative and determine the financial benefit to Attleboro if the alternative is pursued.

Relevant Costs

66. Mystic, Inc., produces a variety of products that carry the logos of teams in Southern Football League (SFL). The company recently paid the league $85,000 for the rights to market a popular player jersey and immediately began production. The following information is available:

Number of jerseys manufactured: 25,000

Cost of jerseys manufactured: $625,000

Amount of manufacturing costs paid to-date: $410,000

Number of jerseys sold to-date: 0

Estimated future marketing costs: $330,000

Anticipated selling price per jersey: $42

The SFL is about to file a lawsuit to stop jersey sales and is demanding another $50,000 from Mystic for the manufacturing rights. Conversations with Mystic's attorneys indicate that the league has a strong case and is likely to win the suit. If this situation arises, Mystic will be unable to recover any amounts paid to the SFL.


Mystic's sales department anticipates very strong demand and a sellout of all jerseys manufactured.

A. Determine the overall profitability of the jersey product line if Mystic settles the disagreement with the SFL and the anticipated sellout occurs.

B. Should the company pay the additional $50,000 demanded by the league or should the jersey program be dropped? Show computations to support your answer.

Special (Custom) Order

67. Howard Robinson builds custom homes in Cincinnati. Robinson was approached not too long ago by a client about a potential project, and he submitted a bid of $483,800, derived as follows:


$ 80,000

Construction materials


Subcontractor labor costs



Construction overhead: 25% of direct costs


Allocated corporate overhead


Total cost


Robinson adds an 18% profit margin to all jobs, computed on the basis of total cost. In this client's case the profit margin amounted to $73,800 ($410,000 x 18%), producing a bid price of $483,800. Assume that 70% of construction overhead is fixed.


A. Suppose that business is presently very slow, and the client countered with an offer on this home of $390,000. Should Robinson accept the client's offer? Why?

B. If Robinson has more business than he can handle, how much should he be willing to accept for the home? Why?

B. 483,800 price. This way he can cover all of his costs and make his normal 18% profit margin.

Special Order, Outsourcing

68. Cornell Corporation manufactures faucets. Several weeks ago, the firm received a special-order inquiry from Yale, Inc. Yale desires to market a faucet similar to Cornell's model no. 55 and has offered to purchase 3,000 units. The following data are available:

· Cost data for Cornell's model no. 55 faucet: direct materials, $45; direct labor, $30 (2 hours at $15 per hour); and manufacturing overhead, $70 (2 hours at $35 per hour).

· The normal selling price of model no. 55 is $180; however, Yale has offered Cornell only $115 because of the large quantity it is willing to purchase.

· Yale requires a design modification that will allow a $4 reduction in direct-material cost.

· Cornell's production supervisor notes that the company will incur $8,700 in additional set-up costs and will have to purchase a $3,300 special device to manufacture these units. The device will be discarded once the special order is completed.

· Total manufacturing overhead costs are applied to production at the rate of $35 per labor hour. This figure is based, in part, on budgeted yearly fixed overhead of $624,000 and planned production activity of 24,000 labor hours.

· Cornell will allocate $5,000 of existing fixed administrative costs to the order as "…part of the cost of doing business."


A. One of Cornell's staff accountants wants to reject the special order because "financially, it's a loser." Do you agree with this conclusion if Cornell currently has excess capacity? Show calculations to support your answer.

B. If Cornell currently has no excess capacity, should the order be rejected from a financial perspective? Briefly explain.

C. Assume that Cornell currently has no excess capacity. Would outsourcing be an option that Cornell could consider if management truly wanted to do business with Yale? Briefly discuss, citing several key considerations for Cornell in your answer.


69. St. Joseph Hospital has been hit with a number of complaints about its food service from patients, employees, and cafeteria customers. These complaints, coupled with a very tight local labor market, have prompted the organization to contact Nationwide Institutional Food Service (NIFS) about the possibility of an outsourcing arrangement.

The hospital's business office has provided the following information for food service for the year just ended: food costs, $890,000; labor, $85,000; variable overhead, $35,000; allocated fixed overhead, $60,000; and cafeteria food sales, $80,000.

Conversations with NIFS personnel revealed the following information:

· NIFS will charge St. Joseph Hospital $14 per day for each patient served. Note: This figure has been "marked up" by NIFS to reflect the firm's cost of operating the hospital cafeteria.

· St. Joseph's 250-bed facility operates throughout the year and typically has an average occupancy rate of 70%.

· Labor is the primary driver for variable overhead. If an outsourcing agreement is reached, hospital labor costs will drop by 90%. NIFS plans to use St. Joseph facilities for meal preparation.

· Cafeteria food sales are expected to increase by 15% because NIFS will offer an improved menu selection.


A. What is meant by the term "outsourcing"?

B. Should St. Joseph outsource its food-service operation to NIFS?

C. What factors, other than dollars, should St. Joseph consider before making the final decision?

Store Closure

70. Papa Fred's Pizza store no. 16 has fallen on hard times and is about to be closed. The following figures are available for the period just ended:



Cost of sales


Building occupancy costs:





Supplies used






Allocated corporate overhead


All employees except the store manager would be discharged. The manager, who earns $27,000 annually, would be transferred to store no. 19 in a neighboring suburb. Also, no. 16's furnishings and equipment are fully depreciated and would be removed and transported to Papa Fred's warehouse at a cost of $2,800.


A. What is store no. 16's reported loss for the period just ended?

B. Should the store be closed? Why?

C. Would Papa Fred's likely lose all $205,000 of sales revenue if store no. 16 were closed? Explain.

Evaluation of a Service Line

71. "It's close to a $40,000 loser and we ought to devote our efforts elsewhere," noted Kara Whitmore, after reviewing financial reports of her company's attempt to offer a reduced-price daycare service to employees. The daycare's financial figures for the year just ended follow.



Variable costs


Traceable fixed costs


Allocated corporate overhead


If the daycare service/center is closed, 70% of the traceable fixed cost will be avoided. In addition, the company will incur one-time closure costs of $6,800.


A. Show calculations that support Kara Whitmore's belief that the daycare center lost almost $40,000.

B. Should the center be closed? Show calculations to support your answer.

C. What problem might the company experience if the center is closed?

Make or Buy, Capacity Constraint

72. Fowler Industries produces two bearings: C15 and C19. Data regarding these two bearings follow.



Machine hours required per unit



Standard cost per unit:

Direct material

$ 2.50

$ 4.00

Direct labor



Manufacturing overhead:










*Applied on the basis of direct labor hours

**Applied on the basis of machine hours

The company requires 8,000 units of C15 and 11,000 units of C19. Recently, management decided to devote additional machine time to other product lines, resulting in only 31,000 machine hours per year that can be dedicated to production of the bearings. An outside company has offered to sell Fowler the bearings at prices of $13.50 for C15 and $13.50 for C19.


A. Assume that Fowler decided to produce all C15s and purchase C19s only as needed. Determine the number of C19s to be purchased.

B. Compute the net benefit to the firm of manufacturing (rather than purchasing) a unit of C15. Repeat the calculation for a unit of C19.

C. Fowler lacks sufficient machine time to produce all of the C15s and C19s needed. Which component (C15 or C19) should Fowler manufacture first with the limited machine hours available? Why? Be sure to show all supporting computations.

Use of Excess Production Capacity

73. Lee Company has met all production requirements for the current month and has an opportunity to manufacture additional units with its excess capacity. Unit selling prices and unit costs for three product lines follow.




Selling price




Direct material




Direct labor (at $20 per hour)




Variable overhead




Fixed overhead




Variable overhead is applied on the basis of direct labor dollars, whereas fixed overhead is applied on the basis of machine hours. There is sufficient demand for the additional manufacture of all products.


A. If Lee Company has excess machine capacity and can add more labor as needed (i.e., neither machine capacity nor labor is a constraint), which product is the most attractive to produce?

B. If Lee Company has excess machine capacity but a limited amount of labor time available, which product or products should be manufactured in the excess capacity?

Joint Costs: Allocation and Decision Making

74. Riverside Company manufactures G and H in a joint process. The joint costs amount to $80,000 per batch of finished goods. Each batch yields 20,000 liters, of which 40% are G and 60% are H. The selling price of G is $8.75 per liter, and the selling price of H is $15.00 per liter.


A. If the joint costs are allocated on the basis of the products' sales value at the split-off point, what amount of joint cost will be charged to each product?

B. Riverside has discovered a new process by which G can be refined into Product GG, which has a sales price of $12 per liter. This additional processing would increase costs by $2.10 per liter. Assuming there are no other changes in costs, should the company use the new process? Show calculations.

Joint Costs: Allocation, Focus on Decision Making

75. Stowers Corporation manufactures products J, K, and L in a joint process. The company incurred $480,000 of joint processing costs during the period just ended and had the following data that related to production:

Sales Values and Additional

Cost if Processed Beyond Split-off


Sales Value at Split-off

Sales Value

Additional Cost













An analysis revealed that all costs incurred after the split-off point are variable and directly traceable to the individual product line.


A. If Stowers allocates joint costs on the basis of the products' sales values at the split-off point, what amount of joint cost would be allocated to product J?

B. If production of J totaled 50,000 gallons for the period, determine the relevant cost per gallon that should be used in decisions that explore whether to sell at the split-off point or process further? Briefly explain your answer.

C. At the beginning of the current year, Stowers decided to process all three products beyond the split-off point. If the company desired to maximize income, did it err in regards to its decision with product J? Product K? Product L? By how much?



Characteristics of Information for Decision Making

76. Information is said to be useful in decision making if it possesses three characteristics.


A. List the three characteristics of useful information.

B. Frequently, there is a conflict between two of the characteristics requested in part "A." Briefly explain what this conflict is.

C. What distinguishes relevant from irrelevant information?

Distinctions Between Sunk Costs and Opportunity Costs

77. Sunk costs and opportunity costs are inherent in decision making.


A. Define the terms "sunk cost" and "opportunity cost."

B. How are sunk costs treated when making decisions?

C. "Information about sunk costs can be found in the financial statements and accounting records; however, information about opportunity costs is omitted." Do you agree with this statement? Explain.

A. .

Capacity Restrictions

78. Capacity restrictions often change the way that managers make decisions. For example, consider a retailer that has limited square footage in its store. What guideline should be used in deciding which new products to carry? How would this differ, say, from a concert promoter that desires to bring a rock group to an arena-type facility?

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Tutorials for this Question
  1. Tutorial # 00003719 Posted By: smartwriter Posted on: 11/23/2013 07:45 AM
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    the company plans to replace. Management is studying whether the ...
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  2. Tutorial # 00003720 Posted By: smartwriter Posted on: 11/23/2013 07:46 AM
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    be manufactured because it has the highest contribution margin per ...
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