Ashford University ENG 225 ASSIGNMENT

Question # 00574535 Posted By: Prof.Longines Updated on: 08/15/2017 07:13 AM Due on: 08/15/2017
Subject English Topic American Literary Tradition Tutorials:
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Review Alcoa's website In a two-page paper (not including the title and ref pg) you must:

Describe how you would classify Alcoa's ethical work climate. In your description, address which type of community it is (see Section 4.2): geography-based, identity-based, organizationally-based, and/or virtually based.

Explain the role top management commitment plays in developing the ethical work climate and organizational performance seen at Alcoa.

Define and discuss any two of the six cultural questions as they apply to Alcoa (see Section 4.3).

You must use at least one scholarly source in addition to the text and your paper must be formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Note: Title must appear on the first page of text; headings must be used in all APA essays; and, the final heading of your paper must be the word: Conclusion. Contact your instructor if you have any questions regarding proper formatting.

Lisa J & Scott C (2016) Corporate and Social Responsibility: Road Map for a Sustainable Future; Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

This is the book

I have included section 4.2 and 4.3 from the book

Section 4.2

4.2 Globalization

Globalization typically refers to the economic forces that build interdependency across the world. Others regard globalization as a social force by which common values come together. In contrast to these relatively positive associations, some people consider globalization to be a destructive force that results in job loss, depressed wages, and economic and social decline. Still others see globalization as tied to world political organizations such as the United Nations.

The common thread among all these perspectives is that our world is increasingly interconnected by technology, comparative ease of travel, and treaties and trade agreements that increase the flow of goods and services across national and international boundaries. Regardless of how different leaders and consumers feel about this fact, an increased connection exists and can further complicate a corporation's efforts to make ties with the various communities across the globe (Robinson, 2007). Globalization relates to CSR and sustainability because almost all of its definitions suggest that the communities in which corporations operate continue to geographically widen. With such growth, consumers, employees, and managers must concomitantly expand analyses, planning, and inclusion. Specifically, as the world becomes more connected, even firms with a primarily regional focus might have an Internet page that international audiences read. Firms can source ideas from around the world more easily when the world is closely connected, but firms can also have their ideas and inventions copied or modified by other people thousands of miles away. The more our world connects, the more managers need to analyze and plan for what happens as a result of such connections.

Working in a Globalized World and the Need for Transcendence

Working in a globalized world presents problems and opportunities for corporations at individual, team, divisional, and senior leadership levels. The imperative to cope with globalization has both strategic and personal implications. Individuals must learn to work with people who are culturally different (even if the two parties only interact over the phone). Corporations must learn to comply with different political and social systems (Hammond, Anderson, & Cissna, 2003). The following sections discuss some strategies for approaching globalization challenges.


Historically, many powerful corporations tended to ignore the issues of globalization because leaders adopted an assimilation strategy. This strategy suggests that a powerful entity or community makes and imposes the rules that a smaller or less powerful entity or community must enact. Eventually, the larger entity absorbs and overtakes the smaller community by force or by slowly changing and reconfiguring it. Assimilation worked in the past because the corporation's overall reach was limited, and the power of certain corporations was high and less diffuse. In recent years, however, corporate leaders have been increasingly exposed to an alternative way. A transcendent approach is not only less costly than the more dominating assimilation style, it can also provide important competitive advantages and clear pathway toward sustainability and social responsibility (in part because it is much less forceful and respects human choice and agency).


Transcendence relates to the concept of building a "third way," a new position that is somewhere between "my way" and "your way." It suggests that one needs to be aware of one's own cultural characteristics, understand the cultural characteristics of others, and then work together to create third way that appreciates and honors both cultures. Of course, this is a very difficult process, but one that can yield important results. Without going into detail, it can be argued that all peacemaking processes—whether personal or global in scale—relate to some form of transcendence. People who work on cultural, religious, educational, environmental, or other types of transcendence do not abandon their own cultural beliefs in the process, nor do they ask another person to do so. Rather, they work with others so all parties can move forward (Ritchie & Hammond, 2011). Transcendence represents an ideal way to incorporate the views of many while still working toward a solution. It can be useful in communities as small as two people and in those as complicated as multinational companies that have operations on every continent. For many leaders, working to achieve transcendence represents a way to increase buy-in, support, and inclusion and to achieve better results from related action plans.


People often find reasons to avoid cultural transcendence, especially when it seems difficult and requires a lot of emotional energy. Strategies to avoid cultural transcendence include denial, rejection, minimization, diversion, and superficiality (Hammond, Lieckty, & Damron, in press). An example of denial is when people say there are no real differences between cultures and that all people are basically the same. In denying the complexity of culture, we give ourselves permission to avoid the work and progress that might ensue from addressing it. Another common strategy to delay or avoid cultural transcendence involves rejecting another culture. For example, one might use language to suggest that one culture is superior and "normal" while another is inferior; such language avoids the opportunity to achieve cultural transcendence and instead devalues entire groups of people. Consider, for example, when history books refer primarily to the achievements of White males and ignore or downplay the contributions of women and non-Caucasians (Rothman, 2014). Another way to avoid the complicated work of achieving transcendence is by minimizing differences; when one party oversimplifies the views and opinions of other parties, true transcendence is impossible. People who minimize others may do so inadvertently when they assume that having good intentions is enough. Minimization causes people to avoid the difficult work of deeply understanding another culture.

Yet another way to avoid cultural transcendence is to distract people or divert effort by focusing attention on a shared goal for a short time—such a tactic works temporarily but does not result in unity or transcendence. This distraction occurs, for example, when people assume that getting all parties to focus on earning a profit will nullify cultural differences among and between the parties. This avoidance strategy can result in short-term gain but long-term alienation, when people are no longer distracted and realize they have not come together in a meaningful way.

Relatedly, a superficial avoidance strategy suggests that one only need learn another culture's appropriate customs and manners, such as when to kiss, bow, or shake hands. This simplified strategy allows people to ignore the deeply ingrained values that trigger, explain, and support the external actions and norms around customs and manners. When people are willing to engage in self-reflection and consider ways they may be either purposefully or inadvertently obstructing the work of transcendence, such work is more likely to succeed.

In addition to self-reflection, there are other tools for understanding and analyzing culture. The next section discusses widely used cultural dimensions that can help employees and managers categorize and understand national cultural differences that can impact people's actions and priorities at work and in relation to CSR and sustainability. Considering the specific topics of sustainability and social responsibility introduces additional dimensions of culture. The skill of learning to identify and use these dimensions to increase understanding and decrease conflict applies to topics of national culture and to those of CSR and sustainability, as the next sections illustrate.

Section 4.3 Cultural Questions

Apply Your Knowledge: Six Cultural Questions

The following questions align with different and often contrasting cultural dimensions. These questions allow a leader or manager to explore his or her behaviors to identify what core cultural assumptions he or she makes about what is "right" and "normal." Pose these questions to yourself and think about how you, your family, close friends, or colleagues might answer. The words in parentheses describe the cultural dimensions. Review your answers. Which cultural dimensions most align with your responses?

1.How do we see our identity? (collectivist or individualist)

Is individual or team performance valued?

What is the range of rewards between low and high performers?

What happens when individuals "stick out?"

2.How do we make or break agreements? (universalist or particularist)

Do you follow the rules or follow your friends?

How important is the rule of law?

How important is it to sustain relationships?

3.How do we deal with time differently? (polychronic or monochronic)

How past-, present-, or future-oriented is our culture?

How do we conduct meetings?

What do we consider to be a deadline?

How do we hold each other accountable?

4.How do we deal with organizational status or structure differently? (achievement or ascription)

How is status granted?

How is status earned?

What is the difference between high-status and low-status individuals?

5.What is the focus or starting point? (specific or diffused)

Do we start with the context or a specific point?

Do we view the project from a wide angle or a close-up lens?

Do we value the specialist or the generalist?

6.What is our emotional style? (neutral or affective)

How are emotions displayed?

What is the value of rationalism?

How are different ideas given weight?

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