The specification of conceptual
definitions serves as a specific working definition and also:
In general, whenever
researchers are concerned that measures obtained through coding may not be
classified reliably, they should:
In research, the process of
regarding something as real (such as crime seriousness) when it is not is
The assignment of grades by the
professor to major research papers is an example of:
A lower-level measure cannot be
converted to a higher-level one.
Reliability is measuring what
you think you are measuring.
The study of food-buying habits
where researchers were interested in learning whether people who drank wine ate
healthier foods than people who drank beer—is a good example of:
Content validity refers to:
The process of developing
operational definitions is known as:
The primary difference between
the interval and the ratio level of variables is that:
Reliability is threatened every
time there is a single observer as the source of data.
Which of the following best
represents the abstract “reliability”?
The test-retest method is used
Ranks in the local police
department represent what level of measurement?
Every variable should have two
important qualities; their attributes should be exhaustive as well as mutually
The number of counts on an
indictment is what level of measurement?
One good indicator of crime
seriousness is harm to the crime victim.
A definition that spells out
exactly how we plan to measure a variable is known as:
According to Abraham Kaplan’s
(1964) discussion; which of the following are not included in the three classes
of things that a researcher measures?
Numerous studies have shown
that measures of crime based on police records often suffer from:
The words or symbols in
language used to illustrate subjective thoughts or mental images about things
we may encounter in daily life are known as:
When a supervisor for a survey
contacts a subset of the respondents to verify certain information, it is an
The production report generated
at the city police department contains the number of arrests made by each
officer on a monthly basis. What level of measurement would number of arrests
A researcher concerned with
whether a particular measurement technique will, after repeated measures, yield
the same results is concerned with:
Particular empirical measures
that agree with common understandings of
our individual mental images about a specific concept have which kind of
Conceptualization is the
process by which we specify precisely what we mean when we use particular
Validity that is related to the
logical relationships between variables is known as:
Logical sets of attributes are
Validating an individual
measure by comparing it with alternative measures of the same concept is known
Which of the following is
representative of the dimension “victim harm”?
A person’s height as a measure
of a person’s IQ would be seen as having what problem?
A questionnaire contained the
item “social class” with responses of lower class, lower middle class, middle
class, upper middle class, upper class. The researcher asks respondents to
check the one that describes them. The researcher is using this question to
The key standards for
measurement quality are:
A researcher has measured fear
of crime by asking the subjects whether or not they were afraid of crime and by
asking them to rate from 1 – 10 their own fear of crime. Which is the highest
level of measurement that is illustrated by this example?
Researchers must be able to
classify every observation in terms of one and only one attribute. Which of the
following terms best describes this concept?
Because low marital adjustment
should lead to divorce, Professor Quinn checked his measure of marital
adjustment by examining whether couples with low martial adjustment scores
later obtained divorces. This illustrates the use of:
The penalties that are assigned
to different crimes by law are best characterized as a dimension of:
Disorder is a symbol of urban
decay that people associate with
Which of the following is an
attribute of the variable “employment status”?
With respect to levels of
measurement which of the following is not correct?
When the actual distance that
separates the attributes composing some variables does have meaning, the
variables are described as:
Age of an offender is an
example of which level of measurement?
A specifiable aspect of a given
concept is referred to as a:
Although a person’s
observations and experiences are real, his or her concepts are:
An empirical measure that
adequately reflects the meaning of the concept under consideration is known as:
The design and execution of
criminal justice research requires eliminating the confusion over concepts and
reality. To accomplish this, scientists have found it useful to distinguish
three kinds of definitions: real, conceptual, and:
Professor Smith is studying
attitudes toward gun control and plans to assess support for firearms
registration by determining whether or not her research subjects say they would
travel to countries where the possession of unlicensed guns is legal. Her
critics argue that this measure lacks:
Sometimes it is necessary to
make the same measurement more than once, which is known as:
Criterion related validity
Measures of jail capacity were
operationalized as whether or not there were more inmates housed at the end of
the year than the original building design called for would be an example of
what level of measurement?
Which of the following
variables allows for attributes to be placed on a continuum with equal distance
Ratio measures are the highest
level, followed by:
Which of the following
sequences illustrates the progression of measurement steps?
Ordinal measures are variables
whose attributes may be logically rank-ordered.